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Taxation of the informal sector in Zambia

"Zambia, like most developing countries, has undertaken tax reforms in a bid to raise more revenue from its tax system. Though tax reforms in Zambia began in the early 1990s, tax revenue has grown only marginally from its sharp decline prior to the …

Migrant Entrepreneurship, Collective Violence and Xenophobia in South Africa

"South Africa provides an important case study of how citizen attitudes and behaviours materially affect the business climate for migrant entrepreneurs. Trying to run a business in the informal economy is an especially hazardous undertaking in South…

Systematic Review of Literature on 'Informal Economy' and 'Food Security' South Africa 2009 - 2014

"Despite the importance of the informal food economy in fulfilling the daily and weekly food needs of a large proportion of South Africa’s low-income population, it appears little research exists on the exact nature of the relationship between the i…

Second Best? Trends and Linkages in the Informal Economy in South Africa

"The idea of a ‘second economy’ has become a feature of recent government economic policy. In this paper we focus on one important element of the second economy – the informal economy. We analyse the nature of the informal economy in South Africa, …

Raising Productivity and Reducing the Risks of Household Enterprises in Rwanda

"Rwanda’s economic development goals include providing full and productive employment to the labor force, and ensuring that poorer households, along with the rich, benefit from economic growth. This requires raising the productivity of all sectors o…

AERC Scoping Exercise on China-Africa Relations The Case of Angola

"Angola, for strategic reasons of its own, has no intention of aligning solely with Beijing. Angola is pursuing its own version of non-alignment in favour of its own home grown resource nationalist approach. Indeed in contrast to neighbouring Zimbab…

The Informal Economy, Economic Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa

"This paper seeks to document the current state of affairs with respect to understanding how informality affects economic growth and poverty in SSA countries. It identifies various studies that have sought to show the relationship between economic g…

Informal Sector's Role in Food Security A Missing Link in Policy Debates

"This paper aims to review what is currently known about the role played by the informal sector in general and informal retailers in particular, in the accessibility of food in South Africa. The review seeks to identify policy relevant research gap…

Competition or Co-operation? South African and Migrant Entrepreneurs in Johannesburg

International migrant business owners in South Africa’s informal sector are, and have been for many years, the target of xenophobic attacks. This has led to public debates about their role in the South African economy and competition with their Sout…

Informal Entrepreneurship and Cross-Border Trade in Maputo, Mozambique

This report presents the results of a SAMP survey of informal entrepreneurs connected to cross-border trade between Johannesburg and Maputo in 2014. The study sought to enhance the evidence base on the links between migration and informal entrepren…

Estimating the Size and Trends of the Informal Economy in Ghana

The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively examine the evolution of the informal economy over the past four decades. The study used the currency demand approach as analytical framework for the assessment. The findings suggest that there has been…

Mean Streets, Migration, Xenophobia and Informality in South Africa

Against the backdrop of ongoing hostility towards migrant entrepreneurs in the corridors of power and on the streets of major cities, the partners in the Growing Informal Cities Project convened a policy workshop on migrant entrepreneurship in South…

What Price Cheap Goods? Survivalists, Informalists and Competition in the Township Retail Grocery Trade

About 54% of South Africa’s township microenterprises trade in food or drink. More than two-thirds of these are grocery retail businesses in the form of spaza shops and smaller ‘house shops’. These are the predominant businesses within the ‘township…

Women's Work and Taxation in the Informal Economy: Issues in Urban Governance in Nigeria

This report examines women's work and taxation in the informal economy based on focus group discussions and key informant interviews conducted in four Nigerian states; Kano, Niger, Imo and Oyo. The objectives of the research were to: Analyse the way…

Citizen Governance, the Informal Economy and Enterprise Development: Southern (Johannesburg, South Africa) West Africa (Accra, Ghana)

The informal economy accounts for 35.2% of total non-agricultural employment in South Africa, according to the World Bank Development Indicators (2018); and in Ghana, about 88 % of the workforce is employed in the informal sector. Economic and socia…

Effective Taxation of Informal Sector through Local Community Partnership

By and large, as citizens begin to see value for money, the burden of enforcement becomes lighter. People will pay taxes when they see the good use that tax revenues are put to. Encouraging tax compliance demands not only lowering costs but also str…

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