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Russia and Angola: The Rebirth of a Strategic Partnership?

"Africa and Russia in general, and Angola and Russia in particular, have a long-standing friendship dating back to the days when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was assisting African national liberation movements in gaining independ…

Russia's Africa Policy

"Russia’s interest in Africa lies not only in terms of the continent’s natural resources. Indeed, Russia’s own reserves are significant. Developing Russia’s own enormous energy resources, however, would be far more costly than developing the same …

Mozambique's Foreign Policy: Pragmatic Non-Alignment as a Tool for Development

"Mozambique has been held up as a veritable poster child of post-conflict success in Africa following the maintenance of relative peace since the end of the civil war in 1992. Much of this has been thanks to a foreign policy successfully pursued on …

Brazil's South-South Co-operation Strategies: From Foreign Policy to Public Policy

"This paper analyses the role of institutional and non-institutional actors in current Brazilian foreign policy agendas, particularly in the field of South–South co-operation. The plurality of actors and agendas results in an increasingly complex de…

On South Africa’s Intervention on the African Continent: Utopia and myth distinguished

"This policy brief examines South Africa’s role in resolving some of the intricate crises on the African continent. The focus is on the perceived predatory nature of South Africa’s relations with the rest of the continent, and why such relations are…

America is Coming to Africa: a Comparison with China

"President Barack Obama visited some African countries in June 2013. Later, he announced that there would be an American-African summit in August of 2014 in Washington. For this purpose he has extended invitation letters to African leaders with the …

The African Union and Foreign Policy

"Foreign policy is a set of principles of governments that defines their external relations with other countries. It also serves as an instrument to achieve the national interests of a nation. In implementing their foreign policy, governments manage…

The Reed that Lies Low in a Flooded River: The Case of Swazi Resistance to South African Reform Diplomacy

This policy brief traces how post apartheid South Africa has sought to engage Swaziland. South Africa has used its economic clout to influence political developments in Swaziland since 1994. However Swaziland has been reluctant to accept reform init…

South Africa's Economic Statecraft in Southern Africa: Non-existent or Nascent? An Examination of Relations with Zimbabwe and Swaziland

This occasional paper is concerned with the success of South Africa’s engagement with Zimbabwe and Swaziland in support of a normative and progressive agenda by means of economic incentives and other tools favouring the promotion of democracy and it…

Post-Conflict Development What South Africa Can Achieve Through SADC

As levels of intra-state conflict rise in Africa, regional economic communities (RECs) have become increasingly important players in implementing post-conflict reconstruction and development (PCRD). For Sub-Saharan Africa, the Southern African Dev…

The Courts: Lights that Guide our Foreign Affairs

This paper specifically seeks to examine the role that South Africa’s courts might play, and how civil society might use the courts, in ensuring that the country’s foreign policy complies with human rights standards. It does so by reflecting on sev…

Ethiopia's Regional Diplomacies: A Dominant Interpretation of the Horn of Africa

Ethiopia has a long diplomatic history and extensive experience in foreign relations.Previous Ethiopian regimes, particularly Mengistu’s military regime, externalised almost all the country’s problems by focusing on building military defence capabi…

Nigeria's Continental Diplomatic Thrusts: the Limits of Africa's Nominally Biggest Economy

"A dominant portion of contemporary literature on Nigeria’s regional and continental diplomacies suggests that the foreign policies of Africa’s nominally biggest economy are hardly progressive and dynamic, due principally to the perverse hiatus bet…

Conflict Trends Issue 1 2015

‘Egypt in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring: What Lies Ahead?’ highlights some of the main security, economic and foreign policy challenges facing the Al-Sisi government. ‘The Democratic Transition in Tunisia: A Success Story in the Making’, portray…

R2P International Criminal Court and the Prevention of Mass Atrocities in Africa

"Following the massacres in Yugoslavia and Rwanda the international community committed itself to preventing similar occurrences in the future. The developing doctrine of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and the institution of the International Crimi…

South Africa's Foreign Policy: Tempering Dominance through Integration

"Southern Africa has always featured prominently in South Africa’s foreign policy. During apartheid, the National Party government saw fit to unleash a destructive agenda on neighbouring countries as an integral part of its strategy to quash support…

South Africa's Foreign Economic Strategies in a Changing Global system

"South Africa’s foreign policy has developed since the country’s transition to democracy in 1994. The South African government used to emphasise multilateralism as an important component in its international relations, keen to make itself heard o…

Intertwined Paths: Portugal and Rising Angola

"Since independence, Portuguese–Angolan relations have been constrained by their historical past and by Angola’s own internal vicissitudes. However, the end of Angola’s civil war in 2002, and the stability and national reconciliation process that f…

Reconstructing the implications of liberation struggle history on SADC Mediation in Zimbabwe

"Former liberation movements are at the helm of government in Zimbabwe, Namibia, Mozambique, Angola, South Africa and Tanzania. They have maintained close ties rooted in common liberation histories and personal connections, and during times of cr…

Dependency, Instability and Shifting Global Power Influences and Interests in African Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

"Given the multiplicity of nations involved there is not one African foreign policy but many, reflecting diverse interests, weaknesses, strengths and national histories. The challenge of an introductory paper such as this is to reflect that diversi…

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