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Ethnic Conflict in the Horn of Africa

"This paper looks at the formation of ethnicity and ethnic conflict in the Horn of Africa with particular attention to the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Firstly, conflict in the Horn of Africa at large is mapped out. Ethnic and political gr…

How the ANC won the 2004 Elections: Perspectives on voting behaviour in South Africa

"In an effort to offer an explanation for the ANC’s electoral victory in the period 1994 to 2004, the paper will discuss the voting patterns of South Africans with regard to economic policies, campaign strategies and alliances. A closer scrutiny of …

Peace-keeping in Rwanda

The current campaign of violence in Rwanda is a continuation of previous ethnic conflicts between the Hutu and Tutsi groups. Currently the ethnicity is not the only reason for this violence as it is also directed towards moderate elements in the Hut…

West Africa Insight Vol 5 No.1: Secessionist Movement

This journal comprises several articles. The first article on page 4 is titled: Biafran Separatist Agitations in Nigeria: Causes, trajectories, scenarios and the way forward by Prof. Jideofor Adibe discusses the causes of the civil war in the Republ…

Togolese express Tolerance toward (most) Minorities and Support for Gender Equality

The government of Togo has taken recent steps to protect the rights of women and minorities. One is a new penal code, adopted in November 2015 after years of advocacy by human-rights organizations, that strengthens protections against gender-based v…

Contemporary Populism

Prof. Fukuyama began his analysis of populism with the election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the UK’s Brexit vote in 2016. “We all found ourselves in the midst of a global populist uprising … trying to figure out what was happening”. He …

Bridging the Divide in Ethiopia’s North

Tigray and Amhara, Ethiopia’s two powerful northern regions, are locked in a dangerous standoff. The tensions over Amhara claims to land administered by Tigray sparked proxy violence in 2018 and could do so again given the lack of appetite for compr…

'All in this Together': Africans Tolerant on Ethnic, Religious, National, but not Sexual Differences

“We’re all in this together” is a mantra of the COVID-19 crisis as leaders and activists argue for global and all-of-society responses to the pandemic. At the same time, public fears have highlighted social fissures through acts of intolerance and v…

Elder, you're Right! Age-Group Differences in Social and Political Interactions in Africa

Differences in age play an important role in social interaction across the African continent. However, the social effects of these differences remain understudied. Using Afrobarometer data, we investigate how age differences between interviewers and…

All in this Together? Social Tensions in the Post-Jammeh Gambia

The Gambia does not have a history of ethnic and religious tensions. But starting under former President Yahya Jammeh and continuing since the change of government in 2017, political rivalries are increasingly taking an ethnic form. The government’…

Ethnicity and Ethnic Politics in Kenya: Policy Gaps Analysis

Kenya like most African countries is multi-ethnic and is perceived to be one of the most ethnically fragmented societies in Africa. Notably, there is no statistical evidence to confirm the exact number of ethnic groups in Kenya, as for decades the t…

Identity in Kenya: Tolerance and Trust Deficits Points to Opportunities for Progress

Identity is an important attribute of individuals and groups that influences how people see themselves and relate to others. Individuals and groups leverage many different identities as the situation demands: ethnic, linguistic, economic, national, …

Managing Ethiopia's Ethnic Divisions through Constitutional Design

Ethiopia’s political landscape has long been torn between groups with divergent policy recommendations. However, the debates have not engaged the entire range of options available to divided countries for managing ethnic divisions. This report outli…

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