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Coal Exports and the Diversification of Botswana's Economy

"The paper considers the opportunities and risks associated with the development of Botswana’s steam coal export sector. Given the very high coal prices on world markets achieved over the last decade together with the growing demand in India and C...

Energy, Water and Climate Change in Southern Africa What are the Issues that Need Further Investment and Research?

"Southern Africa is a water-scarce region. Like other developing countries Southern African nations aspire to the living standards of industrialised countries. To achieve these standards more water and energy resources are needed to support econo...

Clean Energy and Development for South Africa: Background data

“The study has three main objectives, firstly to update both the models and the data developed and captured during the first integrated energy planning process. Secondly, to project future scenarios for the South African energy system and determi...

Clean Energy and Development for South Africa : Results

"The objective of this document is to report on the scenarios considered and compare the costs and social impacts using the sustainability indicators. The scenarios reported on are the energy efficiency improvements in the commercial, industrial,...

Renewable Energy Technologies for Poverty Alleviation South Africa: Biodiesel and Solar Water Heaters

"In this report, two RE technologies – solar water heaters (SWHs) and biodiesel – have been identified where renewable energy could make a significant contribution towards poverty alleviation in terms of improving the general welfare of households...

What Contribution does the Installation of Solar Water Heaters Make Towards the Alleviation of Energy Poverty in South Africa?

"This paper explores the assumption that solar water heaters installed in low-income households increase the household’s capital and decreases the vulnerability of the households to poverty. The research supports the discussion around the social b...

Putting a Price on Carbon : Economic Instruments to Mitigate Climate Change in South Africa and Other Developing Countries

"The papers in this proceedings address a variety of themes in this area: emissions trading, carbon taxes, fiscal and non-fiscal instruments, policy and institutional dimensions, and lessons from the Clean Development Mechanism. There has been e...

Analysis of the Economic Implications of a Carbon Tax

"Why might South Africa consider a carbon tax? The purpose would be to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A carbon tax would achieve this through two broad effects – a demand effect, reducing energy demand due to higher prices, and a substitut...

Factors Determining the Affordability of Renewable Energy A Note for South Africa

"When a country is deciding on a policy of introducing renewable energy as an alternative energy source, affordability is a prime consideration. Affordability depends on the type of technology, policy direction and investment considerations. All t...

South African Approaches to MRV of Mitigation Actions: The Case of Installing Solar Water Heaters

"So-called ‘mitigation actions’ (MA) are actions and processes, which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The term has become core to the international climate change negotiations, as the main instrument to induce emissions reductions in dev...

Harnessing Geothermal Energy: The Case of Kenya

"Kenya’s heavy reliance on hydroelectricity production has made the country vulnerable to climate change impacts, such as drought and erratic rainfall patterns. Kenya needs to develop a more resilient and stable supply of electricity, while rapidl...

Technology Diffusion through Intellectual Property Rights: Innovating to Combat Climate Change

"The technological revolution required by climate action, aimed at mitigating the impact of climate change, can be achieved by existing technology, but would benefit immensely from continued innovation to lower costs. Such a revolution will enable...

Towards A Comprehensive National Energy Policy

"Man, as a tool-maker, has always depended on energy as his tool-mover. Like the basic needs of shelter, benign forms of energy are a necessity of modern life. Without ample energy, our industry and commerce would come to a grinding halt. This pap...

Trade in Electricity Services in the Southern African Customs Union: Towards a Negotiating Strategy

"The development of a country’s electricity sector is crucial for broader economic growth and economic and social development. The electricity sector in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) member states is facing chronic challenges, includ...

China in the African Solar Energy Sector

"Access to reliable and affordable electricity is critical for poverty alleviation and the improvement of livelihoods, including in the areas of education, health, and industrial development in Africa. However, a combination of factors, such as c...

Biofuel Technology Transfer in IBSA: Lessons for South Africa and Brazil

The success of biofuel production in Brazil (bioethanol in particular) is recognised as a tangible point of collaboration in the India–Brazil– South Africa (IBSA) Forum. Sharing knowledge and systematic technology transfer on biofuels can strength...

Solar Power Prospects in North Africa's Sahara Desert

"There is significant potential for generating electricity from solar power in the Sahara desert in North Africa for both domestic use and for export to Europe. The successful implementation of projects to harness solar power could improve standa...

Towards a Green Energy Revolution in Africa: Reflections on Waste-to-Energy Projects

"The twin processes of urbanisation and industrialisation are positively correlated with waste generation and energy consumption. Sadly, the global reliance on fossil fuels has contributed not only to new challenges of global warming, but also to ...

Making Renewable Energy Affordable: the South African Renewables Initiative

"South Africa is a country with a predominantly coal-fired electricity system and ever-growing energy needs. Use of renewable energy resources for electricity generation is currently almost non-existent, but the potential is great. Through its ne...

Achieving Development Goals with Renewable Energy : The Case of Tanzania

"Lack of reliable access to electricity is a significant barrier to economic development and job creation in Tanzania. Currently, only 14% of the population has access to electricity; in rural areas the electrification rate hovers around 2%. Power...

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