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Coal Exports and the Diversification of Botswana's Economy

"The paper considers the opportunities and risks associated with the development of Botswana’s steam coal export sector. Given the very high coal prices on world markets achieved over the last decade together with the growing demand in India and Chi…

Energy, Water and Climate Change in Southern Africa What are the Issues that Need Further Investment and Research?

"Southern Africa is a water-scarce region. Like other developing countries Southern African nations aspire to the living standards of industrialised countries. To achieve these standards more water and energy resources are needed to support economi…

Clean Energy and Development for South Africa: Background data

“The study has three main objectives, firstly to update both the models and the data developed and captured during the first integrated energy planning process. Secondly, to project future scenarios for the South African energy system and determine…

Clean Energy and Development for South Africa : Results

"The objective of this document is to report on the scenarios considered and compare the costs and social impacts using the sustainability indicators. The scenarios reported on are the energy efficiency improvements in the commercial, industrial, t…

Renewable Energy Technologies for Poverty Alleviation South Africa: Biodiesel and Solar Water Heaters

"In this report, two RE technologies – solar water heaters (SWHs) and biodiesel – have been identified where renewable energy could make a significant contribution towards poverty alleviation in terms of improving the general welfare of households a…

What Contribution does the Installation of Solar Water Heaters Make Towards the Alleviation of Energy Poverty in South Africa?

"This paper explores the assumption that solar water heaters installed in low-income households increase the household’s capital and decreases the vulnerability of the households to poverty. The research supports the discussion around the social ben…

Putting a Price on Carbon : Economic Instruments to Mitigate Climate Change in South Africa and Other Developing Countries

"The papers in this proceedings address a variety of themes in this area: emissions trading, carbon taxes, fiscal and non-fiscal instruments, policy and institutional dimensions, and lessons from the Clean Development Mechanism. There has been ext…

Analysis of the Economic Implications of a Carbon Tax

"Why might South Africa consider a carbon tax? The purpose would be to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A carbon tax would achieve this through two broad effects – a demand effect, reducing energy demand due to higher prices, and a substitutio…

Factors Determining the Affordability of Renewable Energy A Note for South Africa

"When a country is deciding on a policy of introducing renewable energy as an alternative energy source, affordability is a prime consideration. Affordability depends on the type of technology, policy direction and investment considerations. All the…

South African Approaches to MRV of Mitigation Actions: The Case of Installing Solar Water Heaters

"So-called ‘mitigation actions’ (MA) are actions and processes, which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The term has become core to the international climate change negotiations, as the main instrument to induce emissions reductions in devel…

Trade in Electricity Services in the Southern African Customs Union: Towards a Negotiating Strategy

"The development of a country’s electricity sector is crucial for broader economic growth and economic and social development. The electricity sector in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) member states is facing chronic challenges, includin…

China in the African Solar Energy Sector

"Access to reliable and affordable electricity is critical for poverty alleviation and the improvement of livelihoods, including in the areas of education, health, and industrial development in Africa. However, a combination of factors, such as cli…

Biofuel Technology Transfer in IBSA: Lessons for South Africa and Brazil

The success of biofuel production in Brazil (bioethanol in particular) is recognised as a tangible point of collaboration in the India–Brazil– South Africa (IBSA) Forum. Sharing knowledge and systematic technology transfer on biofuels can strengthen…

Solar Power Prospects in North Africa's Sahara Desert

"There is significant potential for generating electricity from solar power in the Sahara desert in North Africa for both domestic use and for export to Europe. The successful implementation of projects to harness solar power could improve standard…

Towards A Comprehensive National Energy Policy

"Man, as a tool-maker, has always depended on energy as his tool-mover. Like the basic needs of shelter, benign forms of energy are a necessity of modern life. Without ample energy, our industry and commerce would come to a grinding halt. This paper…

Morocco’s Green Energy Opportunity

Morocco’s energy landscape has been changing rapidly over the past decades. Alongside its own population growth, rising access rates to electricity as well as high rates of rural-urban migration and rising living standards, Morocco’s domestic energ…

Localizing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) & SDG7 in Puntland

The global development scene continues to experience huge challenges among them extreme poverty; inequality and injustice; and a changing climate that threatens all humanity whether in developed or less developed countries. Faced with this reality, …

Opportunities and Challenges in Engendering the African Energy Value Chain

This policy briefing draws on the findings of a discussion paper examining South Africa and Rwanda’s efforts to include women in the renewable energy (RE) sector. A comprehensive gender mainstreaming toolkit was developed based on this research, wh…

Transitioning to Renewable Energy: An Analysis of Energy Situation in Juba, South Sudan

South Sudan faces a serious energy crisis due to a number of factors, including devastating conflicts (e.g. 1955-172, 1983-2005 & 2013–present) and reliance on the fossil fuel source. The country has the lowest energy consumption rate in Africa and …

Towards a Green Energy Revolution in Africa: Reflections on Waste-to-Energy Projects

"The twin processes of urbanisation and industrialisation are positively correlated with waste generation and energy consumption. Sadly, the global reliance on fossil fuels has contributed not only to new challenges of global warming, but also to pr…

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