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Migration, Urbanisation and Sustainable Livelihoods in South Africa

"Crises present both opportunities and dangers. When facing turmoil in the 1980s, South Africa embraced an aggressive agenda of social, economic, and political transformation. The results are imperfect, but few question the underlying wisdom of th...

A Strategic Conflict Assessment of Zambia

"The purpose of this study on Zambia is to present an overview of current trends, risks and opportunities for conflict mitigation. The study highlights potential areas of concern, and will conclude with recommendations to guide strategy aimed at m...

Wading Through a Domestic Political Crisis in a Turbulent Region

"This paper highlights the structural causes of conflict in Chad, and argues that the success of any external intervention in the region will depend on the capacity of the international community to look beyond the narrow lens of the Darfur questi...

Lesotho's troubled road

This brief reports describes the reasons and consequences of the coup d’etat in Lesotho on 20 January this year. The government of Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan and his ruling party faced two interrelated problems before the coup: waning domestic...

“We Can’t Eat the Constitution” Transformation and the Socio-Economic Reconstruction of Burundi

"The Republic of Burundi is poised at the helm of a new chapter in its history following the end of a decade of civil war and ethnic division. The country’s astounding progress on the political level has raised expectations that the upcoming demo...

A Mixed Reception Mozambican and Congolese Refugees in South Africa

"This monograph reviews existing literature on two episodes of forced migration to South Africa. The first is the flight and reception of between 250,000 and 350,000 Mozambicans during that country’s civil war in the 1980s. The second is an influx...

An Evaluation of the Post Savimbi Peace Process in Angola since February 2002 : The Victor's Peace Treaty

"The war in Angola had culminated in the suspension of political life, the exclusive focus of the economy towards the war effort, and the subordination of the human rights and security of ordinary people. After Savimbi’s untimely death in February...

Peacekeeping in the DRC MONUC and the Road to Peace

"The aim of this monograph is to enhance understanding of the complex array of actors and actions that underpin the current Congolese ‘peace process’ — from the key protagonists and their interests in the DRC, to the deployment of MONUC, and attem...

Refugee Camp Security in West Africa: An ECOWAS Priority?

"The aim of this paper is to highlight the negative effects that the lack of security in refugee camps in West Africa can have on individuals and society as a whole, and to suggest measures to address the security gap. This is done by outlining th...

Peace and Development in Northern Somalia: Opportunities and Challenges

It must appear to much of the world that Somalia has ceased to exist. All diplomatic missions there have been closed and Somalia’s seat at the United Nations lies empty. Although limited UN aid programmes are operating, bilateral donors have la...

Liberia- Unravelling

The international community is often left to bemoan the fact that it lacks effective early warning tools for major humanitarian crises and conflicts. Yet, today in Liberia it is presented with almost a textbook case of all the major warning signs ...

Tackling Liberia: The Eye of the Regional Storm

There is a critical need for further international action to end the civil war in Liberia – and to halt the spread of chaos beyond its borders that has both inflamed the Côte d’Ivoire crisis and threatens wider military conflict and humanitaria...

Scramble for the Congo - Anatomy of an Ugly War

The Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement, signed eighteen months ago to stop the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), has proved hollow. The accord largely froze the armies in their positions, but did not stop the fighting. The mandated United Nat...

Sudan: Now or Never in Darfur

A month after the international community solemnly marked the tenth anniversary of the Rwandan genocide in April 2004 with promises of "never again", it faces a man-made humanitarian catastrophe in western Sudan (Darfur) that can easily become nea...

Decision Time in Zimbabwe

Change is in the air in Zimbabwe. Its citizens no longer talk about whether it will come, but rather when. All acknowledge, however, that the road will be dangerous, possibly violent. South Africa is the single country with ability to help its nei...

Zimbabwe: At The Crossroads

Zimbabwe's 24-25 June 2000 parliamentary election resulted in President Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU (PF) party retaining power. However, the nine month old opposition party, the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), made an impressive showing, win...

Zimbabwe: The Politics of National Liberation and International Division

Despite the rising humanitarian costs of the crisis in Zimbabwe, the international community remains deeply divided about its response, allowing President Mugabe to believe that he can exploit the policy fissure between - broadly - the West and Af...

Zimbabwe's Election: The Stakes for Southern Africa

Since the intensification of Zimbabwe's political, economic and humanitarian crisis following defeat of a government-sponsored constitution in a national referendum nearly two years ago, the International Crisis Group (ICG) has documented the esca...

Rebuilding Liberia: Prospects and Perils

Liberia is a collapsed state that has become in effect a UN protectorate. Whether its political and economic reconstruction can begin depends on how quickly security spreads throughout the country. Squabbles over jobs by leaders of the armed facti...

Can the Somali Crisis Be Contained?

Somalia has been drifting toward a new war since the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in late 2004 but the trend has recently accelerated dramatically. The stand-off between the TFG and its Ethiopian ally on the one hand, and t...

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