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Progress Towards a Better Quality of Life and Improved Social Well being in Tanzania

"This brief summarises Chapter 2 of the 2007 Poverty and Human Development Report (PHDR) for Tanzania. The 2007 PHDR provides key information and data on national indicators, provides a framework for determining a strategic approach to growth, and a…

Equity Implications of Health Sector User Fees in Tanzania.Do we retain the user fee or do we set the user f(r)ee?

"Equity means that everyone should, in practice, and not just in theory, be able to access and use appropriate health services. Health services should not only be for the dominant population group. This implies equitable access and use, given that s…

Improving the Mental Health Treatment Gap in Ghana

"Mental health in Ghana, like most other developing countries, is severely under-funded by the national government and international donors. The mental disorder treatment gap (percentage of people with untreated illness) is estimated at 98 percent.…

Political and Social Challenges facing the Reduction of Uganda's Maternal Mortality Rates

"While there has been a recent worldwide decline in maternal mortality rates, mothers in developing countries, like Uganda, continue to face challenges in receiving effective reproductive health care. Uganda’s maternal mortality and morbidity rates …

The Impact of Economic Performance on Health in Zimbabwe

"The nexus between economic growth and health outcomes has been extensively studied. However the relationship between the two is not clear. Historically, decline in both infant and child mortality rates, and the fall in both male and female adult m…

The Relationship between Health and Economic Growth in Nigeria

"There seems to be a broad consensus that economic growth can definitely lead to improvement in health. For example, economic growth could lead to increased availability of food; increased earnings which makes health spending more affordable; and a…

Impact of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Child Health Outcomes in Kenya

"It is widely acknowledged that a healthy nation is a wealthy nation. However, like most developing countries, Kenya records unfavourable population health indicators. An extensive body of knowledge suggests inter-generational health effects where a…

Mother's Spending Decisions, Ethnicity and Child Malnutrition in Ghana

"I argue in this policy brief that the relationship between ethnicity and the mother’s role in child nutrition is either direct or indirect, depending on the nature of cultural practices. Thus, in a setting with cultural practices such as food taboo…

Overcoming Africa's Health Burden: Challenges and Prospects

"Africa shoulders the world’s burden of disease. It is the epicentre of the global resurgence of infectious epidemics and pandemics. Africans remain troubled by diseases like diarrhoea, measles, cholera and tuberculosis that have long been overcome …

Building Effective Drinking Water Management Policies in Rural Africa: Lessons from Northern Uganda

"National governments should develop strong rural drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance programs to ensure that uncontaminated water is available in rural Sub-Saharan African communities. Governments and non-governmental organizations (…

Building Effective Drinking Water Management Policies in Rural Africa: Lessons from Northern Uganda

"While the need to provide clean drinking water is widely recognized as a priority in rural Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a lack of specific data on water quality to build effective drinking water management policies. This discussion paper describes …

Ill-health and Labour Market Outcomes in Uganda

"The role health plays in reducing poverty and economic development particularly in developing countries is undisputable in the economic literature. Health of the population is a key factor for labor productivity, poverty reduction and overall econo…

Explaining the Health Status of Children in Sierra Leone: Parental Socioeconomic Status and Demand for Health Inputs

"In most developing countries, maternal and child health issues have received considerable attention in public health policies and pose formidable challenges. Several studies provide evidence of a strong relationship between socioeconomic factors s…

Determinants of Child and Maternal Health Status and Demand for Health Care Services in Nigeria

" Key findings for this policy brief is:Improving mother’s educational status, reducing food prices and residing in the urban sector are important factors for improving demand for health input such as immunization. Demand for place of delivery with …

The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Health Insurance on the Demand for Prenatal and Postnatal Health Care in Ghana

"Ghana is committed to achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5, which aim to reduce child and maternal deaths by 2015. This commitment is manifested in the way prenatal and postnatal health care services are being made accessible to wo…

The economic problems and policies of South Africa's neighbouring black African states

"Westerners tend to assume that the newly independent states of Africa are somehow, morally bound to make economic development their first and foremost priority. However, to Africans, no less than to other people, independence means to be master of…

Nursing the Future: e-Learning and Clinical Care, in Kenya

"The Policy Voices Series examines the policy implications arising from the experience of innovators in Africa. This paper considers the work of an organisation, chronicling what must be the ultimate test of any distance-learning programme: to achi…

Health Challenges Threaten Gains in Universal Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

"In recent years, Sub-Saharan Africa has recorded strong progress in universal primary education for children. The population of school-age children has increased by 20 million and the size of the out-of-school child population has been reduced by…

Medical Leave: The Exodus of Health Professionals from Zimbabwe

"Zimbabwe is faced with a growing problem of the emigration of its skilled labour. Health professionals in particular are migrating in search of greener pastures outside the country’s borders. This has negatively affected the quality of health care…

Migration and Domestic Work in South Africa: Worlds of Work, Health and Mobility in Johannesburg

"South Africa is in the middle of a well-documented HIV/AIDS epidemic. Infection rates were calculated to be 22% of the adult population in 2003. A number of different reasons have been advanced to explain the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. Th…

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