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Somalia Dilemmas Changing Security Dynamics, but limited policy choices

"The main theme of this paper centres on the paradoxical state of affairs in which on the one hand the nature and dynamics of the conflict continue to change and the insecurity deepens and on the other hand the policy options remain limited. Where...

Confronting Complex Emergencies in Africa Imperatives of a Search for a New Doctrine of Humanitarian ‘Security’ interventions

"The paper starts with an examination of the nature, focus and scope of humanitarian intervention approaches. It highlights the mismatch between salient features of violent armed conflict and the humanitarian military intervention approach. The d...

Peacekeeping and Post-Conflict Criminality Challenges to the (re-) establishment of Rule of Law in Liberia

"The paper presents a critical review of criminality as one of the major challenges facing post-conflict Liberia.The criminality peacekeeping nexus is also explored with a view of establishing the link between UNMILís presence in Liberia and incre...

Sanctions and Embargoes in Africa Implementation Dynamics, Prospects and Challenges in the Case of Somalia

"The Somalia arms embargo was imposed in January 1992 by Security Council Resolution 733(1992) primarily to restrict the delivery of all weapons and military equipment into Somali territory as a way of impacting on the worsening security situation...

Mediation efforts in Somalia

"This paper reviews and assesses the past eighteen years of external mediation efforts aimed at ending Somalia’s protracted civil war and reviving a central government. It identifies lessons learned, summarizes ongoing debates about the most appr...

Lessons from Liberia Integrated Approaches to Peacebuilding in Transitional Settings

"Through research on the ground in Liberia and engagement in peacebuilding discussions within the UN at headquarter level, the paper begins with a review of key conceptual and historical issues and debates surrounding post conflict peacebuilding a...

The African Standby Force An Update on Progress

"This paper provides an update and commentary on the progress that has been made during the last three years on the establishment of the African Standby Force. After providing an overview of the concept, subsequent sections deal with the command a...

Somalia: the Intervention Dilemma

"This Policy Brief examines the apparent urgency to increase AMISOM force levels. It interrogates the AU’s interventionist strategy in Somalia, including the planned troop surge, analyses the terrorist dimension of the bombings, drawing parallels...

The Involvement of the Private Security Sector in Peacekeeping Missions

"PMSCs had been used in Iraq and Afghanistan and played an increasingly important role in both modern warfare and peacekeeping, a fact that could not be ignored. Likewise, the role that Executive Outcomes played in supporting the government in Sie...

Merchants of African Conflict More Than Just a Pound of Flesh

"This monograph is a modest contribution to the body of knowledge that seeks to intensify the call for the regulation of PMSCs in Africa, especially in the context of African conflicts. That African conflicts have included the use of PMSCs is not ...

The Burundi Peace Process From Civil War to Conditional Peace

"This monograph will focus on the role played by peacekeeping missions in the Burundian peace process to ensure that agreements signed by parties to the conflict were adhered to and implemented. The deployment of peacekeeping missions went full ci...

Elimination of Mercenerism in Africa A Need for a New Continental Approach

"The monograph aims to contribute to the global debate around mercenaries,PSCs and PMCs that is earnestly seeking to influence the determination of universal norms and standards by states, especially with regard to the use of PSCs and PMCs, as the...

Private Security Sector in Africa: Country series

"As the debate around the private security industry continues, Africa in principle should not be isolated from it, because, if not properly understood, let alone effectively regulated, the industry could cause a major security threat to Africa. As...

South Africa’s Second Term at the UN Security Council: Managing Expectations

"This paper provides a short section on how global shifts in power may impact upon the Council and the associated chances for reform, before examining key themes and issues that South Africa will likely have to confront during its imminent tenure...

Burundi: The End of the Tunnel?

"The relief of the international community, which had laboured so long to achieve the desired breakthrough, was reflected in the agreement reached with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on 28 and 29 January 2009, to cancel 92 per ...

Ethiopia and Eritrea in Turmoil: Implications for Peace and Security in a Troubled Region

"Whatever the logic of the positions it has taken, the international community has been weak and ineffective in its efforts to resolve the crisis along the Ethiopian and Eritrean border. A dangerous precedent was set when the international commu...

Trends, Impact and Policy Development on HIV/AIDS and African Armed Forces

"Papers presented at the conference reflected on HIV/AIDS challenges in Botswana, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, as well as the Inter-Gov...

The Hybrid Operation for Darfur A Critical Review of the Concept The Hybrid Operation for Darfur

"The paper presents a critical review of the concept of the mechanism of hybrid operations, as one of the emergent post-Cold War peacekeeping trends. While the experiential and diagnostic features of hybrid operations have previously appeared in s...

The United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC): Experiences and Lessons

"A plethora of tasks remain ahead for the Congo – and for the UN and the international community. A number of these tasks are left over from the transition: establishing a capable, responsible army and civilian police force; justice reform, includ...

Learning to Use Force on the Hoof in Peacekeeping: Reflections on the Experience of MONUC's Eastern Division

"The aim of this paper is to focus on the role of UN peacekeepers in robust Chapter VII operations; the appropriate level of military response; challenges commanders face in the field; and the need to improve their performance. The change from tra...

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