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Western Sahara Is There Light at the End of the Tunnel?

"Since the Spanish colonial administration withdrew from Western Sahara in February 1976 and Morocco moved in to occupy the territory, the conflict that ensued between Rabat and the Polisario Front, backed by Algeria, has proven very divisive in t...

Protecting Civilians Through Peace Agreements Challenges and Lessons of the Darfur Peace Agreement

"Why do some peace processes succeed and others don’t? More particularly, why do some peace processes create conditions for the effective protection of civilians while others don’t? It is argued in this paper that one important aspect of the answe...

Beyond ‘Shadow-Boxing’ and ‘Lip Service’ The Enforcement of Arms Embargoes in Africa

"If an Arms Trade Treaty is to be successful, it is important to have a more informed understanding of the strengths and limitations of arms embargoes. This paper, employing a comparative case study approach, therefore seeks to analyse the monitor...

Dual Realities: Peace and War in the Sudan – An Update on the Implementation of the CPA

"This situation report highlights some of the most pressing challenges to the implementation of the CPA from the perspective of the political incumbents, international observers, and sectors of civil society including the Sudanese media. It is bas...

Looking East: The Politics of Peacemaking in the Beja Region of Sudan

"As Sudan continues to make headlines because of continuing violence it is clear that the piecemeal approach to conflict in Sudan is not sustainable. Each of the regional agreements signed since 2005 cannot be implemented on an equal basis. Indeed...

Sudan: Eighteen Months After the CPA

"This report will attempt to provide a brief overview of the current dynamics unfolding in the Sudan. It focuses on the implementation of the CPA, though, as a consequence of the rapidly changing environment, the report gives attention only to tho...

Monitoring Fragile Ceasefires The Challenges and Dilemmas of the role of AMIS

"This paper focuses on the operational level, and seeks to examine the efforts of AMIS to stabilise the security situation in Darfur in order to improve the humanitarian conditions on the ground. It also looks at the non-commitment of the partie...

Conflict Early Warning Systems and Support of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan

"The purpose of this meeting is to have an informed discussion on the re-engagement of Sudan with CEWARN in its engagement along the borders of neighbouring countries within the Horn, and secondly, to consider the potential and use of an early war...

Mapping the Road to Peace in Burundi: the Pretoria Sessions

"From 8 October to 2 November 2003 South African peace-brokers finally succeeded in helping the Transitional Government of Burundi (TGoB) and the rebel Forces for the Defence of Democracy- Forces for Defence of Democracy (CNDD-FDD) reach agreeme...

Angola: What hope for an end to the war?

This update reports on the war in Angola. The United States government favours a return to the Lusaka Peace process to establish peace in the region . However this is rejected outright by UNITA who argues that Angola can only be rebuild on the bas...

Peace-making in West Africa : Progress and Prospects

"The aim of this monograph is to document past ECOWAS experiences and identify lessons learned and best practices in its sub-regional peace-making processes. The focus is on major peace agreements brokered to end the conflicts in Liberia, Sierra L...

Côte d'Ivoire: What's Needed to End the Crisis

Excerpt: "On 4 March 2007, the two main actors in the Côte d’Ivoire crisis signed the Ouagadougou Peace Agreement (OPA). The deal initially produced a peaceful atmosphere. The demarcation line between the armed forces was dismantled, a new governm...

Guinea-Bissau: Building a Real Stability Pact

Excerpt: "November 2008 legislative elections were an important test for Guinea-Bissau, whose transition to democratic rule badly needed impetus. It was uncertain whether they would take place until the last minute, but they were praised by both c...

Sudan's Southern Kordofan Problem: The Next Darfur?

Excerpt: "The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended Sudan’s generation-long North-South civil war in 2005 is at risk in Southern Kordofan state, where many of the same ingredients exist that produced the vicious Darfur conflict. Both part...

Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement: Beyond the Crisis

Excerpt: "On 11 October 2007, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) announced it was suspending participation in the Government of National Unity because the National Congress Party (NCP) was not implementing key aspects of the 2005 Compre...

Sudan: Defining the North-South Border

"The January 2011 referendum on self-determination could result in Sudan’s partition, and the country’s North-South border may ultimately become the world’s newest international boundary. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended two...

The accord of Nkomati: Context and content

"The purpose of the present article is to focus on the Accord of Nkomati in the broader context of Southern African relations, to analyse its content and to compare it with the other non-aggression agreements concluded by South Africa. Part of ...

Namibia since Geneva

"The purpose of this paper is to reflect on diplomatic efforts by the Western powers to reach a negotiated settlement of the Namibian saga. Understandably one can only reflect on the major features of what has become a lengthy diplomatic soap o...

NATO and South Africa

"As this year is the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, it seemed appropriate to circulate to members information about the achievements of NATO. The article "in Alliance For All Seasons" by War...

Mozambique - South African relations and the resurrection of the Nkomati Accord

This brief report describes the elusive prospects for peace in Mozambique despite renewed contact between the South African and Mozambican heads of state. South Africa was willing to play a role in attempting to end the war, which is dampened by s...

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