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Poverty and Changing Livelihoods of Migrant Maasai Pastoralists in Morogoro and Kilosa Districts, Tanzania

"The objective of this study was to analyse how the Maasai migrants have adapted themselves to the new ecological conditions and the impact of such adaptations on their livelihoods. Confronted with the loss of grazing land due to several geographica…

Youth Migration and Poverty Alleviation : A Case Study of Petty Traders (Wamachinga) in Dar Es Salaam

"This study begins with a proposition that there is a link between poverty, migration and policy. Its purpose is therefore to study and understand the phenomenon of rural-urban youth migration by focusing on mobile and stationary petty-traders in …

South Sudan: Compounding Instability in Unity State

"Given its history, resources, ethno-political significance and location – at once both strategic and isolated – Unity state is today a territory of unique importance and complexity. Instability must be considered in light of the complicated histor…

Labour Migration in Southern Africa

"This monograph will briefly outline the origins of the migratory labour system. The trends in labour movement are of particular significance and these are examined at length. Three parties are involved in any migration: the governments of the supp…

What has been Happening to Internal Labour Migration in South Africa, 1993-1999?

"The data that are available in nationally representative household surveys for the period 1993 to 1999 were explored. Three questions are being posed. First, what is the extent of temporary labour migration within South Africa and what trends emer…

Informal Social Protection in Post-Apartheid Migrant Networks: Vulnerability, Social Networks and Reciprocal Exchange in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa

"This paper considers the dynamics of informal social protection in the context of chronic poverty and vulnerability in post-apartheid migrant networks. It argues that in poor and marginalised households in South Africa, the indirect impacts of soci…

In Search of South Africa's 'Second Economy': Chronic Poverty, Economic Marginalisation and Adverse Incorporation in Mt Frere and Khayelitsha

"Since 2003 South African policy discourse about persistent poverty has been dominated by the notion that poor people stay poor because they are trapped in a 'second economy' disconnected from the mainstream 'First-World Economy'. This paper conside…

Land Reform, Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and Gender Relations: A Case Study of Gallawater A Farm Volume 1

"The first chapter of this report outlines the rationale for the research on gender relations, sustainable rural livelihoods and land reform. It also provides background on the analytical framework utilised in the study, and the research sites wh…

Key Challenges for Ensuring Food Security in South Africa’s Inner Cities

"Urban influx due to large-scale rural-urban migration is a major global demographic trend. South Africa is experiencing such rapid urban influx as large volumes of people are migrating to cities, particularly inner city areas. The main drive for su…

Growth, Poverty Reduction and Inequality in Ethiopia: The Role of Labor Markets (between 1994 and 2004)

"In poverty literature, poverty reduction in a growing economy is analyzed in association with inequality. Economic growth could be accompanied with growing inequality, or with no change in inequality (distribution neutral growth), or with declining…

Vulnerability and Social Protection at the Margins of the Formal Economy: Case Studies from Khayelitsha and the Eastern Cape

"This report sets out the results of an in-depth study of livelihood strategies and ‘coping mechanisms’ among poor people in one very specific, but highly significant context of poverty in South Africa. Its core concrete concern is with social gra…

After the Exodus: The Challenges of Return Migration in Zimbabwe

"Since the early 1990s, political and economic unrest in Zimbabwe have caused large numbers of Zimbabweans to emigrate in search of foreign employment. Zimbabweans living abroad remain reliable remitters of both money and goods during their home nat…

Institutional, Legal and Regulatory Reforms to Enhance Labour Export in Uganda

"Export of labour through temporary migration is increasingly recognised worldwide as a pro-poor export strategy with significant development impacts in the poorest countries. Developing countries with excess labour, high levels of unemployment and …

The Kenyan Experience Linking Emigrant Communities for More Development Inventory of Institutional Capacities and Practices

"Kenya is an East African country with a more recent history of emigration. The early emigration patterns of Kenyans began in the late 1950s where migration was primarily for educational purposes for citizens to train overseas and return home to dev…

Needs Assessment Seminar on Migration and Development Challenges in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)

"This paper provides an overview of the key issues in migration and development. It identifies, defines and provides relevant instances of four main issues in the migration-development debate: (i) brain drain and brain circulation; (ii) migrant remi…

The Security Challenges of Pastoralism in Central Africa

"Since it began in prehistoric times, pastoralism in Africa has been a story of perpetual movement by cattle and their herders, who have adapted to the region’s climatic and security constraints over thousands of years. In Central Africa, transhuman…

The Kenya Experience MTM: A Dialogue in Action Linking Emigrant Communities for More Development Inventory of Institutional Capacities and Practices

This paper focuses on the emigration history of Kenyans on the one hand and then more recent outcomes of migrations. Kenyans emigrate due to economic, labour market, political, demographic and social factors. It is estimated that 87 267 Kenyans have…

Citizens Perception on Migration in South Africa

This bulletin gives insight into the feelings of South Africans with regard to migrants. It gives a perception of how migrants will be accepted into the workplace and neighbourhoods. It also looks at the extent to which migrants will be welcomed as…

Zimbabweans' (Mostly) Tolerant Views on Citizenship

Citizenship of a country is not always as clear as it seems. Citizenship can be gained through birth right, registration, naturalisation, descent or adoption. This however has been the reason for conflict in many African countries. This survey looks…

International Migration, Remittances and Poverty Alleviation in Ethiopia

"The paper explores the impact of international remittances on the Ethiopian economy and on the livelihoods and welfare of households. It uses macroeconomic data and data from the Ethiopian urban household survey. It was found that remittance shocks…

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