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Improving the Supply Chains for the Health Sector: What Role for Locally Manufactured and Imported Medicines and Medical Supplies in Kenya

"This Issue Paper presents some findings on research on supply within Kenya from local manufacturers to the health system. It compares the sourcing of local supplies and competing imports within the public, private and faith-based sectors of health …

Local Supply Chains for Medicines and Medical Supplies in Kenya: Understanding the Challenges

"The project aimed to identify opportunities for improved local industrial supply of medical products to strengthen Kenyan and Tanzanian health system performance. This working paper briefly outlines project methods and key concepts. It then summari…

Value-added Tax in the Pharmaceutical Industry: What does it really mean for Kenya's Industralisation/

"A key issue for many countries is how to manage trade taxation policy in such a way that necessary public revenue can be acquired but not at the cost of long term industrialisation. An important area here is that of VAT and how best to levy it with…

Spotlight on Pharmaceutical Pricing Regulation in Kenya: How Much does it Really Contribute to Access?

"Ensuring access to essential medicines by low income consumers is a challenge to many countries. Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising in Kenya, as is the health expenditure. However, our research found that on average, public sector facilities inte…

Southern African Development Community Health Policy: Under Construction

Regional health policy in Southern Africa is still under construction. The SADC Protocol on Health, signed in 1999, lays the cornerstone for health development in the region. A pressing issue in the SADC region is a lack of coordinated access to hea…

HIV/AIDS and Militaries in Africa

A range of military experts, civil society representatives, academics and policymakers from 28 African governments, Regional Economic Communities, the African Union and the United Nations contributed to the findings covered in this report. It addre…

HIV/Aids and Human Security: An Agenda for Africa

The objective of the seminar was to consider the links between human security and the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa, and the potential role of African leadership in addressing this crisis. The seminar also sought to devise policy recommendations on t…

Socio Economic Factors of Early Childhood Mortality in Ethiopia : Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey

The rates of childhood mortality are important summary indicators of social development, quality of life, overall health, maternal health and welfare. Childhood deaths are primarily caused by preventable and communicable diseases and poor coverage o…

Despite Gains, Barriers Keep Health Care High on Africa's Priority List

"Access to health care gained the spotlight on national and international development agendas when the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration outlined a strategy for achieving universal access to primary health care by the year 2000. The Millennium Development …

The Place of Policy in Applied Health Care and Technology with Special Reference to African Traditional Medicine

"The author was assigned the task of addressing the role of policy in applied health technology with special reference to African traditional medicine. Perhaps what is intriguing in this theme is that despite the fact that African traditional medic…

Health Spending in Uganda Implications on the National Minimum Health Care Package

This policy brief is part of Public Expenditure Governance (PEG) study of the health sector in Uganda. The research objective overall was to examine the links between public spending, governance, and outcomes in the health sector and the specific o…

National Legislation, Policies, Strategies and Programmes to Ensure Appropriate Protection and Benefit-sharing of Traditional Herbal Medicinal Knowledge with and by Traditional Herbalists in Uganda

"Today, the importance of Traditional Knowledge (TK) in Uganda cannot be overemphasized given the country’s widespread cultural wealth in knowledge, creativity and innovation. To-date, however, there is a limited number of established laws, policies…

National Policies and Legal Frameworks Governing Traditional Knowledge and Effective Intellectual Property Systems in Southern and Eastern Africa: The Case of Traditional Healers in Tanzania

"The study has explored the existing policy and legal frameworks and the community protection mechanisms of traditional knowledge in Tanzania. The major objective of the study was to build a body of knowledge in the area of protection of traditio…

Frameworks for Intellectual Property Protection of Traditional Knowledge in Tanzania

This study revealed that protection mechanisms among the community is mainly secrecy, which cannot be recommended as a means of protecting the TK. Leakage of the secrets could lead to no protection. As TK is not documented, there is a danger of losi…

Traditional Healers and Their Provision of Mental Health Services in Cosmopolitan Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya

One of the major challenges for the Government is the provision of health services for its people, which is a basic need. However, Kenya just like other developing economies is generally constrained by lack of sufficient resources to sustain this de…

Policy Implications for Intellectual Property Systems for Traditional Healers in Lesotho

Traditional Medicine is part of the daily life of the Basotho. Every village in ancient times had a traditional healer living near the chief's main house. Traditional healers are popular as they are affordable, accessible, adaptable and culturally f…

Indigenous Approaches to the HIV/AIDS Scourge in Uganda

"The management of HIV/AIDS-related illnesses using existing drugs is very costly especially for poor households. This study has focused on the role of traditional herbalists in the management and prevention of HIV/AIDS-related illnesses in Uganda.…

Social Welfare and Demand for Health Care in the Urban Areas of Côte d'Ivoire

"This paper analyses the relationship between the demand for health care and that for health insurance by the population of Côte d’Ivoire. A Poisson model is used to estimate the demand for health care and a multinomial logit model for estimating th…

Patience and Care: Rebuilding nursing and midwifery, in Somaliland

"Somaliland's maternal, infant, and child mortality rates are among the highest in the world. A rudimentary health system already beset by under-investment and neglect collapsed completely during the final years of a civil war which ended in 1991. H…

Gaps and Shortages in South Africa's Health Workforce

"Human resources for health play a critical role in the effective delivery of health services, especially in high disease-burdened countries like South Africa. Constraints in the health workforce have emerged as a key obstacle to scaling-up access t…

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