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The East Africa Conference on Intellectual Property Rights and Development

"This is a synthesis report of the proceedings of the East Africa Conference on Intellectual Property Rights and Development which took place in Jinja-Uganda from the 28th -29th June 2006. The Conference brought together senior level officials from…

Is it Time for African Countries to Harmonise their Intellectual Property Management and Development –Reference to TRIPS Agreement?

"Africa’s continued dependency on foreign medicines and intellectual property (IP) is increasingly becoming a serious concern. This is compounded by an upsurge in drug resisting diseases like N1H1 and Tuberculosis that have been witnessed in the pas…

Making the Most of Natural Advantages: Intellectual Property and Natural Products in Botswana

"The purpose of this research was to work towards the development of an intellectual property regime for indigenous plants (and potentially other natural resources) in Botswana that promotes investment in the development of new products whilst prote…

A National Trade Policy for Botswana: Zero Draft and Consultations

"Trade policy plays a key role in the flow of goods and services both within and between countries. The former is called domestic trade while the latter is called international trade. The focus of this study will be on international trade. Countries…

One size doesn't fit all: Deal breaker issues in the failed US-SACU free trade negotiations

"This volume is part of a larger effort to raise awareness among members of the South African business community of the importance to their own interests of the issues at stake in an FTA negotiation, and of the possibilities inherent in compromise. …

Intellectual Property Protection in Africa Status of Laws, Research and Policy Analysis in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are property rights in something intangible and protect innovations and reward innovative activity. IPRs are concerned with the expression of an idea for an invention, the details of which have been worked out an…

A Study on Intellectual Property Environment in Eight Countries: Swaziland, Lesotho, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) refers to protection of inventions in all fields of human endeavor – scientific discoveries, industrial designs, Trade Marks, Service Marks, Literary, Artistic, Scientific Works, Performances, Sound recordings, br…

Assessment of Possible Intellectual Property Protection Options of Traditional Knowledge Systems in Ethiopia: Special Reference in Herbal Medicine for Livestock

This research was initiated to exploit the traditional knowledge on traditional herbal medicine with special reference to livestock. Healing with Ethiopian traditional medicine is not only concerned with curing of diseases but also with the prote…

National Policies and Legal Frameworks Governing Traditional Knowledge and Effective Intellectual Property Systems in Southern and Eastern Africa: The Case of Traditional Healers in Tanzania

The study has explored the existing policy and legal frameworks and the community protection mechanisms of traditional knowledge in Tanzania. The study also examined previous studies undertaken on protection of traditional knowledge and synthesized…

Tiered or Differentiated Approach to Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions: The Evolution of a Concept

For nearly two decades, the World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO’s) expert committee, known as the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC), has been working t…

Why Protect Traditional Knowledge?

There are limited policy and legal frameworks for the protection of traditional knowledge in Africa. The regional or international legal instruments are unlikely to address the needs and aspirations of the individual states. This report attempts to …

Why Access and Benefit Sharing Policy and Legal Frameworks are Important for Africa

Most countries rely on Environmental Management Acts for dealing with Access of genetic resources and its conservation, however there were limited efforts towards setting up clear policies and legal frameworks for dealing with Access and Benefit Sha…

Promotion of Public Health Care Using African Indigenous Knowledge Systems and and Implications for IPRs: Experiences From Southern and Eastern Africa

"The challenge for African policy makers and researchers is to create the right environment for more research on the role of IKS in promoting public health care issues and sustainable development. They should take advantage of the forces of globali…

Intellectual Property, Traditional Knowledge, Access Benefit Sharing Policy Environment in Eight Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa: Swaziland, Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia

There is need for the African states to develop appropriate policies and legal frameworks to enable the local communities to benefit through Access and Benefit Sharing of their resources nurtured for a long time. The purpose of the study was to buil…

Analysis of Traditional Healers in Lesotho: Implications on Intellectual Property Systems

Traditional healers in Lesotho and other African countries have since pre-historic times played a major role in primary health care, counseling and rituals performed for different purposes in the society. Traditional healers in the past had their …

Assessment of Possible Intellectual Property Protection Options of Traditional Knowledge Systems in Ethiopia: Special Reference in Herbal Medicine for Livestock

"Primary data were collected from purposively selected elders' pastoralists in Ethiopia, whose livelihoods depend predominantly on livestock and their products. Most of the treatments in the study areas are plant based. 78.2% of the healers depend …

National Policies and Legal Frameworks Governing Traditional Knowledge and Effective Intellectual Property Systems in Southern and Eastern Africa: The Case of Traditional Healers in Tanzania

"The study has explored the existing policy and legal frameworks and the community protection mechanisms of traditional knowledge in Tanzania. The major objective of the study was to build a body of knowledge in the area of protection of traditio…

Assessment of Possible Intellectual Property Protection Options of Traditional Knowledge Systems in Ethiopia: Special Reference in Herbal Medicine for Livestock

"This research was initiated to exploit traditional knowledge on traditional herbal medicine with special reference to livestock. Healing with Ethiopian traditional medicine is not only concerned with curing of diseases but also with the protection…

Frameworks for Intellectual Property Protection of Traditional Knowledge in Tanzania

This study revealed that protection mechanisms among the community is mainly secrecy, which cannot be recommended as a means of protecting the TK. Leakage of the secrets could lead to no protection. As TK is not documented, there is a danger of losi…

Towards Influencing National Legislation, Policies, Strategies and Programmes for Appropriate Protection and Benefit-Sharing of Traditional Knowledge (TK) with Traditional Herbalists in Uganda

"Today, the importance of Traditional Knowledge (TK) in Uganda cannot be overemphasized given the country’s widespread cultural wealth in knowledge, creativity and innovation. To-date however, there are no established laws, policies or programmes in…

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