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Princes’ Progress Reconstruction and Authority in Eritrea and Rwanda

"Eritrea and Rwanda are among Africa’s smallest and poorest states. Substantial military resources, and expertise, have enabled both countries to exert dispropor-tionate influence over regional security. Aggression and authoritarianism have not p...

Going to Scale in Fragile States: Can It Work? Should We Try?

"The term fragile state is used to describe a country whose government struggles to perform some of its most basic functions,due to a lack of either political will or capacity or a combination of the two. In these states one typically observes per...

Liberating Liberia Charles Taylor and the Rebels Who Unseated Him

"August 2003 was a dramatic month for Liberia. Rebels held Monrovia under siege, West African peacekeepers moved in, President Charles Taylor stepped down and the United States made its first peacekeeping foray into Africa in a decade. For Liberia...

Two Decades of Conflict and Democracy in Sierra Leone A Personal Experience

"Poor governance, mismanagement, endemic corruption, exclusion and marginalisation, especially of the youth, were causal factors that led Foday Sankoh, an ex-corporal of the national army, to take up arms against the feeble government of Presiden...

Southern Sudan: the Option of Secession and its Regional Implications

"As Sudan enters the final and most critical year of its post-war transition period, the other countries that form the Horn and central Africa are on the alert. Southern Sudan’s self-determination referendum, scheduled for January 2011, could ver...

Prospects for Change in Zimbabwe

"These notes are offered to Members ahead of the Commons debate on July 19th 2007. They argue that in developing a practical response to the crisis in Zimbabwe, British policy-makers must recognise the realistic prospect of continued deterioration...

The African Strategic Environment 2020 Challenges for the SA Army

"The introductory section to this paper argued that the nature of war has changed from inter-state to internal conflict and that formal war is seldom declared – and seldom fought.In fact much more has changed. The very nature of security has und...

Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State

Excerpt: "Since 1991 Somalia has been the archetypal failed state. Several attempts to create a transitional set-up have failed, and the current one is on the brink of collapse, overtaken yet again by an Islamist insurgency, despite the support of...

Adding 3Ns to the 3Ds - Lessons from the 1996 Zaire Mission for Humanitarian Interventions

This paper examines the 3D (defence, diplomacy, and development) framework for humanitarian interventions in weak states and/or conflict situations. It accepts that there are some considerable strengths built into this strategic concept for it pri...

Zimbabwe: Political and Security Challenges to the Transition

"As Zimbabwe enters its second year under a unity government, the challenges to democratic transformation have come into sharp focus. Despite reasonable progress in restoring political and social stability, ending widespread repression and stabili...

Disarmament in the Congo: Investing in Conflict Prevention

There are many challenges facing the Lusaka cease-fire signatories and the wider international community in implementing the Congolese peace agreement, but perhaps none so complex as the effort to disarm the non-Congolese armed groups destabilisi...

The Kivus: The Forgotten Crucible of the Congo Conflict

December 2002 witnessed the signing of a power sharing agreement between Congolese parties under the auspices of the UN Special Envoy, Mustapha Niasse, and South Africa that should lead to finalisation of the Inter-Congolese Dialogue and a transit...

Darfur Deadline: A New International Action Plan

The international response to the crisis in the western Sudanese region of Darfur remains limp and inadequate, its achievements so far desperately slight. The UN Security Council must, by its review deadline of 30 August 2004, endorse a new intern...

Dialogue or Destruction? Organising for Peace as the War in Sudan Escalates

Sudan's civil war, already one of the deadliest conflicts since World War II, has entered its most destructive phase to date. Oil revenues have allowed the government to purchase increasingly lethal weapons, more effectively pursue population-clea...

Garang's Death: Implications for Peace in Sudan

The Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) leadership has acted quickly so far to regroup and reorganise, but the loss in a fatal helicopter crash on 30 July 2005 of John Garang, the only leader the movement has known in its 21 years, cr...

How Kabila Lost His Way: The Performance of Laurent Désiré Kabila's Government

A continental war has begun in Africa. It reaches almost without interruption from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Whereas some of the conflicts along this path started decades ago, a new phase involving more than a dozen states has now begun. ...

Sudan: Now or Never in Darfur

A month after the international community solemnly marked the tenth anniversary of the Rwandan genocide in April 2004 with promises of "never again", it faces a man-made humanitarian catastrophe in western Sudan (Darfur) that can easily become nea...

African Civil Society: Prospects for Raising Awareness on Priority Issues

Sub-Saharan Africa is grappling with such severe and recurring economic, political and social crises that some of them, including HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and civil war, have ended up as humanitarian disasters. Making such a statement is not ind...

Why Gender Still Matters: Sexual Violence and the Need to Confront Militarized Masculinity: A Case Study of the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The ongoing war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been marked by almost unimaginable atrocities, including millions killed and displaced in a war that seven nations have participated in. Most horrifically, sexual assault has beco...

Peace and Development in Northern Somalia: Opportunities and Challenges

It must appear to much of the world that Somalia has ceased to exist. All diplomatic missions there have been closed and Somalia’s seat at the United Nations lies empty. Although limited UN aid programmes are operating, bilateral donors have la...

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