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A Review of Recent Developments in the Second Economy in Tanzania

"This paper examines the nature and estimates the magnitude of the second economy in Tanzania to establish the extent to which official national accounts misstate actual or real production of goods and services. Section II sets up the conceptual fra…

Foreign Exchange Bureaus in the Economy of Ghana

"This paper looks at the structure of this market, including the major players, the level of activity and availability of currency on the market. The paper also looks at the efficiency of the market. The intention here is to ascertain whether inform…

The Goldenberg Conspiracy The Game of Paper, Gold, Money and Power

"Goldenberg was a high level conspiracy by senior officials of the Moi administration in Kenya, together with local and international wheeler dealers, who capitalised on the government’s desperation for foreign exchange and the greed of the adminis…

From Isolation to Integration? A Study of Chinese Retailers in Dakar

"Starting from the late 1990s, more and more Chinese have migrated to Senegal, concentrating and opening small shops along the Boulevard Général de Gaulle, one of the major roads in Dakar. Le Centenaire, the wider area around this major road, is al…

Commodity Smuggling in the Maghreb: A Silent Threat

Though largely silent, and not often associated with the same levels of violence as other forms of organized crime, illicit trade threatens national and broader regional security in myriad ways. Insufficiently appreciated, first and foremost, is the…

Quantifying the Size and Development of the Shadow Economy in Swaziland

The size of the shadow economy has been declining at a slow rate over the past 16 years in Swaziland. The size of the shadow economy was found to be 37.4 % in 2016. This was equivalent to E20.5 billion of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2016. Th…

From Conflict to Illicit: Mapping the Diamond Trade from Central African Republic to Cameroon

The smuggling of diamonds is investigated in this report, specifically from the Central African Republic into Cameroon. The focus is also on the impact that this illicit trade has on Cameroon’s internal controls as well as the broader integrity of t…

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