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Somalia Dilemmas Changing Security Dynamics, but limited policy choices

"The main theme of this paper centres on the paradoxical state of affairs in which on the one hand the nature and dynamics of the conflict continue to change and the insecurity deepens and on the other hand the policy options remain limited. Where...

Political Development of Somaliland and its Conflict with Puntland

"Through successive clan conferences, Somaliland established relatively viable institutions which paved the path for reconstruction of an entity mainly employing local resources. Somaliland has thus been depicted as ‘an oasis of stability in an o...

The Somalia Conflict Implications for peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts

"The conflict in Sudan is not a sudden and inexplicable eruption, but rather a result of the interplay of a multiple of historical, social and political processes that has shaped the political and socio-economic structure of Somalia. To adequately...

Sanctions and Embargoes in Africa Implementation Dynamics, Prospects and Challenges in the Case of Somalia

"The Somalia arms embargo was imposed in January 1992 by Security Council Resolution 733(1992) primarily to restrict the delivery of all weapons and military equipment into Somali territory as a way of impacting on the worsening security situation...

Mediation efforts in Somalia

"This paper reviews and assesses the past eighteen years of external mediation efforts aimed at ending Somalia’s protracted civil war and reviving a central government. It identifies lessons learned, summarizes ongoing debates about the most appr...

Stateless Justice in Somalia: Formal and Informal Rule of Law Initiatives

"This report examines the traditional justice systems in Somalia, including xeer and shari'a, with a view to providing the international community with recommendations on how best to engage with those systems to assist the justice sector in that c...

Rule of Law through imperfect bodies? The informal justice systems of Burundi and Somalia

"This paper provides an overview of the central findings emerging from the two studies, Stateless Justice in Somalia – Formal and Informal Rule of Law Initiatives and The Role of Informal Justice Systems in Reconstructing the Rule of Law in Post-C...

Somalia: the Intervention Dilemma

"This Policy Brief examines the apparent urgency to increase AMISOM force levels. It interrogates the AU’s interventionist strategy in Somalia, including the planned troop surge, analyses the terrorist dimension of the bombings, drawing parallels...

Somalia: The Transitional Government on Life Support

"Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government (TFG) has squandered the goodwill and support it received and achieved little of significance in the two years it has been in office. It is inept, increasingly corrupt and hobbled by President Sharif’s w...

Understanding Africa's Contemporary Conflicts Origins, Challenges and Peacebuilding

"The first part, consisting of two chapters, examines changing methodologies through which we can more accurately analyse and map violent conflict, its causes and effects. The second then consider conflict resolution and peacebuilding and the key ...

Building States While Fighting Terror: Contradictions in US Strategy in Somalia from 2001 to 2007

"This report suggests that US policy in Somalia since 2001 represents many strong trends in US security thinking.For instance, there has been a revived emphasis on state stability and, conversely,a problematisation of state weakness as a threat. U...

Changing Paradigm in Somalia

"Over the last eight years,the international community, whether intentionally or not,has addressed the Somali crisis principally through a counter-terrorist approach. For a number of reasons alluded to in this text, such an attempt to provide a s...

Somalia: Understanding Al-Shabaab

"This report briefly examines the nature of Al-Shabaab’s ideological stance, their political ambitions and why this movement constitutes the gravest threat to the survival of Sheikh Sharif’s government and the Djibouti peace process that gave it...

Africa 2008 – 2009: Retrospective look at the past year and forecast for the new year

"The present Situation Report is an attempt to make sense of the various and contrasting developments that marked the year 2008 in Africa from a human security perspective.It also provides some clues to understand the events that are likely to sha...

Somalia: Have All the Options Run Out?

"This paper examines the attempts at the restoration of peace and security in Somalia, which is critical to the establishment and maintenance of stability in the region. Unless there is genuine political will and sustained engagement from the regi...

Short Commentary on Somalia: Plus ça change...?

"The question now is when the resurrected government of Somalia can reduce its dependence on its external life-support systems and assume a measure of responsibility for what happens in Somalia itself. It is evident that these are early days, an...

Don't Hold the African Crisis Response Force Hostage to Unrealistic Demands

"The institution of a standing African force tasked with a peacekeeping responsibility, however, should be assessed in a sober and dispassionate manner and is, for political and practical reasons, more a medium to long term matter than it is an im...

The Root Causes of the Somali Piracy

"Throughout this paper it has been the goal to identify the root causes of the piracy crisis in Somalia, how the crisis itself has transformed over time, efforts to respond to it, and the extent of success. The greatest component that enables all ...

Regional Security in the Post-Cold War Horn of Africa

"This monograph contains papers that were presented and extensively discussed at this particular Expert Roundtable. The monograph primarily attempts to study political decision-making, personalities and historical experiences, and also to identif...

Canada and Missions for Peace: Lessons from Nicaragua, Camboida and Somalia

One of the defining features of Canada’s role in the world, both for Canadians and the international community, has been our unflagging support for United Nations peacekeeping. Up until the beginning of this decade, when the number of intrastate c...

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