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Multilateralism: What is the Political (Geo) Resonance for Steel? / Multilatéralisme : Quelle Résonance (Géo) Politique pour l’acier ?

While energy products are clearly at the heart of geopolitical relations, other commodities cannot be neglected to explain certain developments in the international economic and political scene. Steel has been one of these since the 19th century. Wh…

From Dependency to Partnership: Where are AU-EU Relations Heading

This policy brief considers the prospects of the relationship between the AU and the EU maturing beyond the traditional dependency model. Although great progress has been made since the EU was established and its relationship with predominantly ex-c…

Valetta 2015 to Abidjan 2017: Recent Trends in AU-EU Migration Relations

Ahead of the fifth AU–EU Summit in November 2017, this policy brief identifies changing trends in Africa–EU migration relations under the 2007 Joint Africa– EU Strategy (JAES), the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF) and the outcomes from the…

The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group and the European Union (EU)

The 79-member African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) Group was established in 1975 with the aim of partnering the European Economic Community, now the 28-member European Union (EU), to promote the sustainable development of countries in Africa, the C…

Règles Budgétaires et Soutenabilité des Finances Publiques / Budgetary Rules and Sustainability of Public Finances

This article examines the formulation, implementation, and performance of rules with particular emphasis on the experience of developing countries with a medium income. The first part proposes a definition and justification of budgetary rules, as we…

Europe-Afrique: Quelles perspectives d’Avenir / Europe-Africa: What are the Future Prospects?

At a time when Africa is strengthening its attractiveness, acquiring its own narrative and arousing the interest of new partners, and when Europe is going through an important economic and institutional crisis, what new foundations can the EU-Africa…

The 'Containment Compact': The EU Migration 'Crisis' and African Complicity in Migration Management

In 2015 over 1 million people crossed the Mediterranean Sea from Africa in search of refuge and economic security in Europe. Nearly 4 000 died making the treacherous journey. Media images of dangerously overcrowded, rickety boats and dead bodies was…

A Win-Win for Europe & Africa: Extractive Justice and Resource Interdependency

The trade relationship between Europe and Africa in terms of the extractive sector is characterised by inequitable resource interdependence, whereby Africa does not benefit fully from its natural resources. This briefing argues that a more equitable…

Enhancing EU Resource Governance Interventions: A Call for Prioritizing Human Security

In response to resource-fuelled conflicts in producer countries, EU foreign policy initiatives have sought to enhance ‘good governance’ throughout the value chain for an increasing number of primary commodities. EU-supported reforms of natural resou…

Challenges and Opportunities for the EU in Africa's Extractives Sector

Africa’s mineral resources are important to the EU, and a large number of EU-listed or -based mining companies operate in African countries. The extent to which host-country rules constrain the behaviour of companies sufficiently to ensure that they…

The UK’s Policy Towards Africa Post-Brexit

On the eve of Britain’s exit from the European Union, the country is redefining its international approach. The United Kingdom has already taken action by becoming involved in new economic commitments, new trade agreements in Commonwealth countries …

The Impact of EU Pesticide Regulations on West Africa's Cocoa Exports

Cocoa is of vital importance to the economies of Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria, and it constitutes the largest part of the agricultural sector for these countries. The EU is a major importer of cocoa from West Africa, and therefore regu…

Has Morocco Benefited from the Free Trade Agreement with the European Union?

Since the free trade agreement (FTA) between Morocco and the European Union (EU) came into force nearly two decades ago, Morocco’s export performance on EU markets has been less than stellar and the trade deficit with the EU has surged. This has le…

Can Africa's Contested Energy Futures Create Opportunities for Enhancing EU-African-European Relations?

The challenge of defining African energy futures gains complexity as local politics interact with geopolitical powers and global climate change concerns. The AU-EU strategy focuses on ‘innovation for green transitions’, while European companies cont…

AU-EU Partnership to Promote Sustainable Energy Transitions

The EU Commission has made carbon neutrality its new flagship project. Cooperation on climate change is also becoming increasingly central in the EU’s partnership with African countries. In this policy brief, we argue that an AU-EU partnership on gr…

The SADC-EU Partnership Agreement: Mozambique

Mozambique became a formal signatory of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), between European Union (EU) member countries on September 16, 2016. The Republic of Mozambique was one of six Sub-Saharan African countries that were exclusively inclu…

Relations between Africa and Europe: Mapping Africa’s Priorities

Negotiations around a new Africa-European Union (EU) strategy are expected to culminate in its adoption at a summit in October 2020. African negotiators should ensure that the continent’s priorities are integrated into the strategy. These include …

Building Resilience in Africa: Enabling an Inclusive Digital Economy and Energy Access for All

Unrestricted access to the digital economy is a critical value-added energy service and will help build resilience to the multiple crises the world is experiencing today. The socioeconomic crisis arising from the COVID-19 global health pandemic has …

Accelerating Green Energy Transition in Africa Through Regional Integration

This brief examines the challenges towards green energy transition in Africa and the prospect of regional integration in fast-tracking this process. Regional integration as being proposed among African countries can sidestep some of the constraints …

The Circular Economy: Including Africa in Europe's Circle

The circular economy approach to sustainable economic development has in recent years gained traction and is now included in the European Union’s Green Deal committing the EU to becoming carbon neutral by 2050. African countries practice aspects of …

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