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Informal Entrepreneurship and Cross-Border Trade between Zimbabwe and South Africa

Zimbabwe has witnessed the rapid expansion of informal cross-border trading (ICBT) with neighbouring countries over the past two decades. Beginning in the mid-1990s when the country embarked on its Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP),...

Competition or Co-operation? South African and Migrant Entrepreneurs in Johannesburg

International migrant business owners in South Africa’s informal sector are, and have been for many years, the target of xenophobic attacks. This has led to public debates about their role in the South African economy and competition with their So...

Refugee Entrepreneurial Economies in Urban South Africa

The primary aim of this report is to examine what we call “refugee entrepreneurial economies” in urban South Africa. Within the informal sector, refugee enclaves have often been viewed as stagnant pools of desperation, providing narrow opportuniti...

Living With Xenophobia: Zimbabwean Informal Enterprise in South Africa

This report examines the impact of xenophobic violence on Zimbabweans who are trying to make a living in the South African informal sector and finds that xenophobic violence has several key characteristics that put them at constant risk of losing ...

Comparing Refugees and South Africans in the Urban Informal Sector

This report compares the business operations of over 2,000 South Africans and refugees in the urban informal economy and systematically dispels some of the myths that have grown up around their activities. First, the report takes issue with the pe...

Rendering South Africa Undesirable: A Critique of Refugee and Informal Sector Policy

To understand the policy environment within which refugees establish and operate their enterprises in South Africa’s informal sector, this report brings together two streams of policy analysis. The first concerns the changing refugee policies and ...

Regionalizing Xenophobia? Citizen Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Southern Africa

The negative attitudes of South Africans towards non-citizens, migrants and refugees have been documented in several recent studies. Xenophobia has been officially recognized as a major problem by the state and steps have been taken by government ...

The New Brain Drain from Zimbabwe

All the signs point to the existence of a growing exodus of skilled Zimbabweans from the country. Although the precise dimensions and impacts of this “brain drain” have yet to be determined, the Zimbabwean government has recently sought to stem th...

Changing Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Botswana

For the last two decades, Botswana has had the reputation as a “country of immigration,” based on the large-scale import of skilled expatriates from Africa, Asia and the West. This policy has been accompanied by a general acceptance, and even ope...

Migrants in Countries in Crisis: South Africa Case Study: The Double Crisis – Mass Migration From Zimbabwe And Xenophobic Violence in South Africa

The protracted economic and political crisis in Zimbabwe led directly to a major increase in mixed migration flows to South Africa. Migrants were drawn from every sector of society, all education and skill levels, equal numbers of both sexes, an...

Policing Migration: Immigration Enforcement and Human Rights in South Africa

This paper examines reported incidents of human rights abuses and violence directed towards foreigners where government employees have been the perpetrators. We discuss both direct human rights abuses and incidents of violence (with examples drawn...

Criminal Tendencies: Immigrants and Illegality in South Africa

The purpose of this brief has been to draw attention to the complex new forms of migration and immigration that are transforming traditional migration dynamics to South Africa. Our intention, in doing so, is to contest the view that there is any n...

NEPAD, the City and the Migrant: Implications for Urban Governance

This policy briefly questions the ability of formal developmental interventions to understand local contexts, and, by extension, govern urban spaces. It interrogates the relevance and implications of initiatives like the New Partnership for Africa...

South African Government and Civil Society Responses to Zimbabwean Migration

"This policy brief discusses a key paradox in relation to Zimbabwean migration into South Africa. While Zimbabwean migration since 2000 has been the largest concentrated flow in South African history, South Africa’s reaction to this movement has b...

Patients Without Borders : Medical Tourism and Medical Migration in Southern Africa

"Medical tourism has become a major focus of research and policy interest in the Global South in recent years. Much of the discussion focuses on the motives and impact of Europeans and North Americans who travel to developing countries for lower c...

Unfriendly Neighbours: Contemporary Migration from Zimbabwe to Botswana

"This report focuses on understanding the nature and implications of the most recent phase of movement from Zimbabwe to Botswana. The first section of the report examines the evidence for the number of Zimbabweans in Botswana. As in South Africa, ...

Migration, Remittances and "Development" in Lesotho

"Lesotho is one of the most migration dependent countries in the world. Migrant remittances are the country’s major source of foreign exchange, accounting for 25% of GDP in 2006. Lesotho is also one of the poorest countries in the world due to hi...

Medical Xenophobia: Zimbabwean Access to Health Services in South Africa

"Hostility towards migrants and refugees makes South Africa one of the most migrant-unfriendly countries in the world. In May 2008, the country was rocked by violent attacks on the lives and property of Africans from other parts of the continent. ...

The Engagement of the Zimbabwean Medical Diaspora

"Despite the well-documented negative impacts on the 'brain drain' of health professionals from Africa, there is an argument that their departure is not an absolute loss and that transnationally-oriented medical migrants (or diasporas) can act as ...

Migration, Urbanisation and Sustainable Livelihoods in South Africa

"Crises present both opportunities and dangers. When facing turmoil in the 1980s, South Africa embraced an aggressive agenda of social, economic, and political transformation. The results are imperfect, but few question the underlying wisdom of th...

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