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Eritrea: The Siege State

"Eritrea has been deeply troubled since independence in 1991. Following the devastating war with Ethiopia (1998- 2000), an authoritarian, militarised regime has further tightened political space, tolerating neither opposition nor dissent. Relati...

Guinea: Reforming the Army

"After decades of bad governance and misuse, the armed forces are a potential source of instability which could still throw Guinea and the region into chaos. At the very least, if not reformed thoroughly, they will continue to pose a threat to de...

Garang's Death: Implications for Peace in Sudan

The Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) leadership has acted quickly so far to regroup and reorganise, but the loss in a fatal helicopter crash on 30 July 2005 of John Garang, the only leader the movement has known in its 21 years, cr...

How Kabila Lost His Way: The Performance of Laurent Désiré Kabila's Government

A continental war has begun in Africa. It reaches almost without interruption from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Whereas some of the conflicts along this path started decades ago, a new phase involving more than a dozen states has now begun. ...

Sudan: Now or Never in Darfur

A month after the international community solemnly marked the tenth anniversary of the Rwandan genocide in April 2004 with promises of "never again", it faces a man-made humanitarian catastrophe in western Sudan (Darfur) that can easily become nea...

Sudan's Other Wars

The two-party framework in which Sudan's peace talks are being held is not adequately addressing all the country's current armed conflicts: especially the long-running rebellions in the "Three Areas" (Abyei, the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Ni...

Côte d'Ivoire: No Peace in Sight

The January 2003 Linas-Marcoussis Accords have been badly compromised by a lack of good faith and political will. All the key issues -- nationality, eligibility for elections, and disarmament -- that they attempted to address in order to restore p...

Côte d'Ivoire: "The War Is Not Yet Over"

"The war is not yet over", an ICG mission to Côte d'Ivoire repeatedly heard in November 2003. There are ominous signs that the Côte d'Ivoire peace process initiated in January 2003 has broken down. If the country goes back to war, it could well ta...

Côte d'Ivoire: Le pire est peut-être à venir

The next seven months are a time of great danger for Côte d'Ivoire. Under pressure of an increasingly suspect 15 October 2004 election deadline, its political class may lose control of the cyclical violence it has orchestrated during the on-again,...

Disarmament in the Congo: Jump- Starting DDRRR to Prevent Further War

The Democratic Republic of Congo remains a failed state, occupied by six foreign armies, tormented by militias and unable to meet the most basic needs of its people. The war, which began in August 1998, has not yet ended. The cease fire agreement ...

Liberia: Security Challenges

Whether Liberia takes advantage of its best chance for peace in years and West Africa regains stability depends on bold action by the UN, which needs to shape a comprehensive regional security strategy while rapidly building its peacekeeping force...

Somaliland: Democratisation and Its Discontents

Recent developments have made the choice faced by the international community considerably clearer: develop pragmatic responses to Somaliland's demand for self-determination or continue to insist upon the increasingly abstract notion of the unity ...

The Challenge of Political Reform: Egypt After the Iraq War

This briefing is one of a series of occasional ICG briefing papers and reports that will address the issue of political reform in the Middle East and North Africa. The absence of a credible political life in most parts of the region, while not nec...

Counter-Terrorism in Somalia: Losing Hearts and Minds?

Nearly four years after 9/11, hardly a day passes without the "war on terrorism" making headlines, with Iraq, Afghanistan, Indonesia and now London holding centre stage. But away from the spotlight, a quiet, dirty conflict is being waged in Somali...

Islamist Terrorism in the Sahel: Fact or Fiction?

The Sahel, a vast region bordering the Sahara Desert and including the countries of Mali, Niger, Chad and Mauritania, is increasingly referred to by the U.S. military as "the new front in the war on terrorism". There are enough indications, from a...

Congo Crisis: Military Intervention in Ituri

The district of Ituri, in Oriental Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, has been the theatre of spiralling violence bordering on genocide that urgently needs to be stopped. A French-led Interim Emergency Multinational Force (IEMF) is bein...

The Special Court for Sierra Leone- Promises and Pitfalls of a ?New Model?

Nineteen months after its eleven-year civil war was declared over, Sierra Leone is attempting to bring to justice ?those who bear the greatest responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity?. On 10 March 2003, under the codename, ?Opera...

Shock Therapy for Northern Uganda's Peace Process

The peace process aimed at ending the eighteen-year old conflict in Northern Uganda is in critical condition because neither the Ugandan government nor the insurgent Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) appears fully committed to a negotiated solution.[1]...

Sierra Leone- Managing Uncertainty

The international community is ?cautiously optimistic? about the durability of the peace it has supported in Sierra Leone. There are indeed some reasons for growing optimism. The deployment of a more robust United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (...

Sudan's Best Chance for Peace: How Not to Lose It

On 1 September 2002, two weeks into the second phase of the peace negotiations in Machakos, Kenya, the Sudanese government suspended its participation in the talks being brokered by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD). This foll...

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