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Communicating to Improve Compliance: Taxpayers’ Feedback on Message and Mode of Delivery in Rwanda

The journey started gradually for the Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA), from coercion to persuasion to drive tax compliance. This is shown in the mission and core value statements that underpin the tax administration’s activities in service delivery a…

Tax and Gender in Developing Countries: What are the Issues?

Encouraging tax compliance demands a careful understanding of how taxpayers think about and experience taxation. Knowledge about taxpayer attitudes and behaviour is essential when analyzing opportunities and constraints for reform, and for the desig…

Cross-Border Trade, Insecurity and the Role of Customs: Some Lessons from Six Field Studies in (Post-)Conflict Regions

Africa, and especially the Sahel, has experienced frequent recurrences of armed conflicts and terrorist acts in the last decade. This paper is based on six field studies, in Chad, Mali, Sudan, Tunisia, Libya and the Central African Republic. It refl…

How Do We Measure Tax Expenditures? The Zambian Example

The objective of this paper is to help inform future tax reforms related to tax expenditure provisions in Zambia. It sets out how tax expenditures can be categorised, measured and evaluated, and provides guidance on establishing a robust framework f…

How Kenya has Implemented and Adjusted to the Changes in International Transfer Pricing Regulations: 1920-2016

This paper analyses Kenya’s experience of trying to deal with transfer pricing, and looks at difficulties facing developing and middle-income countries in the application of transfer pricing rules. It discusses the course Kenya has taken in introdu…

Taxation, Property Rights and the Social Contract in Lagos

Major taxation reforms over the past decade have been interpreted as facilitating the transformation of Lagos: once widely seen as a city in permanent crisis, it is now seen by some observers as a beacon of mega city development. Most academic atten…

What Can We Learn from the Uganda Revenue Authority’s Approach to Taxing High Net Worth Individuals?

Wealthy people contribute a significant share of the total revenue collected through personal income tax (PIT) in high-income countries. This is not the case in most low-income countries, where the bulk of revenue from PIT is collected from people w…

Unitary Taxation in Federal and Regional Integrated Markets

This paper compares and analyses the approaches to unitary taxation in federal and regional integrated markets. It also explores the potential application of unitary taxation in the context of regional economic communities within Africa, East Asia,…

A Price-Based Royalty Tax?

In this paper, the author examined the merits of a price-based royalty, a royalty for which the rate varies with the product price, as a fiscal instrument for taxing extractive industries. The case for a price-based royalty is appealing, In light of…

What Do We Know about Mineral Resource Rent Sharing in Africa?

This study aimed to review theoretical and empirical studies on the sharing of resource rent in developing countries in order to identify the difficulties encountered in conducting this type of exercise, so that tools to mitigate them can subsequent…

Limitations of the BEPS Reforms: Looking Beyond Corporate Taxation for Revenue Gains

"This paper argues that global corporate tax policies have long been dominated by a political consensus among governments of countries at all levels of economic development, to the effect that forces of tax competition render taxation of the cross-b…

Taxing the Urban Boom: Property Taxation and Land Leasing in Kigali and Addis Ababa

Urban service sectors including construction and real estate drives contemporary economic growth in Africa. This manifests in rapidly transforming landscapes and the proliferation of valuable property in the continent’s booming large cities, often …

Information Technology and Fiscal Capacity in a Developing Country: Evidence from Ethiopia

"Governments in developing countries are typically constrained by a limited fiscal capacity to finance the provision of essential public goods – a constraint that has been cited as one of the fundamental challenges to economic development. Several d…

Norms, Power and the Socially Embedded Realities of Market Taxation in Northern Ghana

The progress of decentralization efforts in Africa has brought with it expanded discussion of local government taxation, and the potential for tax reform to spur broader state building and governance gains. This paper correspondingly provides a gro…

Tax and the Governance Dividend

Generally it is now an accepted belief that taxation contributes to the quality of governance. There are a number of variants of the broad argument. The most general proposition is that, if governments are dependent on broad general taxation for the…

Tax Structures, Economic Growth and Development

The relationship between tax structures and economic growth is investigated in this paper within a panel of developed and developing countries. In order to raise revenue, low-income countries have historically relied more heavily on international …

Revenue Reform and Statebuilding in Anglophone Africa

In this paper, the tax reforms discussed are a response to fiscal needs, but not generally to fiscal crises. In Section 2, the author explains the situation in which these reforms were introduced. It is explored in more detail in Section 3 (VAT), …

Low Government Revenue from the Mining Sector in Zambia and Tanzania: Fiscal Design, Technical Capacity or Political Will?

Overall, the trend for Sub Saharan Africa and for Zambia specifically, is clear from 2004/5 to recent years, as there have been either negative or low rates of national adjusted savings in contrast to the trend in most of Asia and Latin America. Th…

People’s Views of Taxation in Africa: A Review of Research on Determinants of Tax Compliance

What would be the key determinants of taxpayer compliance? Which features of citizen-state relations govern attitudes and behaviour regarding taxation? In this paper the analytical foundation, methodological approaches and key findings of available …

Local Government Revenue Mobilization in Anglophone Africa

The opportunities and constraints facing local revenue mobilization in Anglophone Africa, was examined in this paper, with an emphasis on urban settings. It discussed specific revenue instruments and their effects on economic efficiency, income dist…

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