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Conflict in Ugadan's Land Tenure

"Uganda’s dualist land tenure system is a root cause of conflict over land use and ownership. The current land tenure laws facilitate land alienation, threaten livelihoods and contribute to food insecurity.Given the nature of land disputes in Ugan...

Hits and Misses in Mozambiques's Climate Change Action Plans

"The creation of Mozambique’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) embraced a bottom-up process lauded for its inclusiveness. For most Africa countries, the NAPA process has resulted in contextually relevant plans that are plagued by sl...

The Impact of HIV on the Sexual Health of Kenya's Young Generation

"Kenyans aged 15-24 have been identified as particularly vulnerable to HIV, sexually transmitted infections and related health issues. Over the past two decades, Kenya’s Ministry of Health has recognized that reproductive health among youth requir...

Research or Treatment: Priorities in South Africa's HIV/AIDS Funding

"Worldwide, South Africa is the only country that makes a significant contribution to AIDS-related research while also having a high HIV prevalence rate. Following the discovery of anti-retroviral drugs, HIV/AIDS-related research is stabilizing in...

The High Costs and Consequences of Rwanda's Shift in Language Policy Reform from French to English

"Language policy in Rwanda has revolved around three languages— Kinyarwanda, the indigenous language of Rwandans, French and English: 90 percent of the population speaks Kinyarwanda; 8 percent speaks French; and, 4 percent speaks English. In the a...

Social determinants of health for Uganda's indigenous Batwa population

"Uganda’s Indigenous Batwa people are among the most vulnerable populations in the world and have limited access to key social determinants of health, including health care, education, clean water, employment and adequate clothing, food, and secu...

Gaps and Shortages in South Africa's Health Workforce

"Human resources for health play a critical role in the effective delivery of health services, especially in high disease-burdened countries like South Africa. Constraints in the health workforce have emerged as a key obstacle to scaling-up access...

Lessons for UN Electoral Certification from the 2010 Disputed Presidential Poll in Côte D’Ivoire

"While UN electoral certification in Côte d’Ivoire did not prevent parties from contesting the election results, the Ivorian case shows the utility and limits of certification as a tool in the UN electoral toolbox. Maintaining flexibility in the...

Gender Dimensions of Drought and Pastoral Mobility Among the Maasai

"Maasai pastoralists are increasingly faced with annual droughts that cause significant livestock deaths and periods of food insecurity. A new form of rangeland management that emphasizes pastoral migrations and extensive herding to mitigate the i...

Al Shabab's Impact on Peace in Somalia and the Horn of Africa

"The growth of Al Shabab in Somalia and the group’s embrace of Sharia law undermine the traditional conflict solving mechanisms of Somali society. Achieving progress toward peace in the region will likely require stemming the tide of Al Shabab’s ...

Tuberculosis and Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa

"The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa represents a unique policy challenge primarily because of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Current TB management needs strengthening to deal with drug-resistant TB while, at the same time, n...

Provocative Discourse and Violence in Nigeria's 2011 Elections

"Regional, religious, and ethnic cleavages marked the April 2011 elections in Nigeria resulting in violence, destruction of property, and displacement of people. Inflammatory rhetoric among politicians and the media served to inflame passions and ...

Challenges of Transitional Justice in Rwanda

"Two systems of retributive justice were set up by the international community and the Rwandan government to try suspects of the 1994 genocide: the Tanzania-based International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the local grassroots gacaca courts i...

Regional Integration in the ECOWAS Region: Challenges and Opportunities

"The originating concept of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which is to facilitate free movement of persons and goods within the West African sub-region, has remained largely elusive over time. Prioritization of national i...

The Fate of Settler Farmers in Contemporary Ghana

"Land shortages, declining soil fertility, and environmental degradation are exacerbating the ability of settler farmers in Ghana to create sustainable livelihoods. Institutional weaknesses in the land tenure and governance systems have contribute...

Illegal Migration and Policy Challenges in Nigeria

"Lack of job opportunities, poverty, and corruption force thousands of young Nigerians to leave the country every year in search of better opportunities abroad. Illegal migration out of Nigeria is increasing and is largely facilitated through for...

Ghana's Offshore Oil: Resource Curse or Blessing?

"This backgrounder explores the contentious debate surrounding Ghana’s oil discovery. It considers the ways in which Ghana’s oil could be either a ‘curse’ or a ‘blessing’ for the country. It briefly considers challenges surrounding resource extrac...

Indigenous Peoples and the Right to Food in Kenya

"The right to food as a concept recognizes the links between food security, culture and resource rights, and as a legal principle, it requires a state to ensure that people are free from hunger. As a framework to guide policy, research and advocac...

Political and Social Challenges facing the Reduction of Uganda's Maternal Mortality Rates

"While there has been a recent worldwide decline in maternal mortality rates, mothers in developing countries, like Uganda, continue to face challenges in receiving effective reproductive health care. Uganda’s maternal mortality and morbidity rate...

Strategies to Support Youth-headed Households in Kenya and Rwanda

"There is a growing number of youth-headed households in Sub-Saharan Africa that have specific vulnerabilities not often addressed by current policies and programs in their home countries. Where countries have developed strategies to support orpha...

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