Victor Shale works for the Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa (EISA), in Johannesburg, South Africa, as a Senior Program Officer. He is responsible for EISA’s political parties program. Mr. Shale is a conflict management expert versed in conflict management, negotiations and mediation approaches and second-track diplomacy. He has trained political parties in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, South Africa, Swaziland, Sudan, Zanzibar and Uganda. He has researched, reviewed book chapters and accredited journal articles, and written journal articles and book chapters on various issues including democracy, political parties, diplomacy, conflict management and local government. His latest work includes co-editing a book When elephants Fight: Preventing and Resolving Election-related Conflicts in Africa foreworded by Former President Festus Mogae of Botswana. He has also written a chapter in the newly released book (DIS) Enabling the Public Sphere: Civil Society Regulation in Africa foreworded by Graca Machel. Shale has been commissioned as a resource person/trainer and has written training manuals for a number of organizations on political parties and conflict management and local government.