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Anneli Botha

Anneli Botha is a senior researcher on terrorism at the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) in Pretoria since 2003. After completing an honours degree in International Politics she joined the South African Police Service, Crime Intelligence in 1993 during which she inter alia focussed on terrorism and religious extremism. She holds a MA (Political Studies) degree at the Rand-Afrikaans University obtained in 1999 that focussed on the historical development of terrorism, religious extremism and PAGAD. She has a specific interest in research on the underlying causes of terrorism, radicalization and counter-terrorism strategies. Her publications include: Terrorism in the Maghreb: Transnationalization of Domestic Terrorism (ISS monograph 144, 2008); Politics and Terrorism: An assessment of the origin and threat of terrorism in Egypt, ISS Paper 131, December 2006; African commitments to combating Organized Crime and Terrorism: A Review of Eight NEPAD Countries (2004, African Human Security Initiative; Political Dissent and Terrorism in Southern Africa, ISS Paper 90, August 2004; An Assessment of Terrorism Counter-measures Adopted by the African Union:  Problems and Prospects for Enhanced Counterterrorism Cooperation, Paper for the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC. She also contributed a chapter titled The Role of the Community in Combating Terrorism in Countering Terrorism and WMD: Creating a Global Counter Terrorism Network, edited by Peter Katona, Michael D Intriligator and Jon P Sullivan. Routledge: London, 2006. Anneli also participated in the US State Department sponsored International Global Conflict Cooperation Program (IGCC) on National Security in San Diego, California. 



  • Terrorism
  • Counter-terrorism


  • M.A (Rand-Afrikaans University)

Library Articles

Radicalisation in Kenya Recruitment to al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council

Published: 2014
"Despite a history of extremism and unconventional political developments in Kenya, relatively little empirical research has been done to determine why and how individuals join al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council (MRC). This paper is based on interviews with Kenyan and Somali-Kenyan individuals associated with al-Shabaab and the MRC. These organisations have very different profiles...

Assessing the Vulnerability of Kenyan Youths to Radicalisation and Extremism

Published: 2013
"Following the intervention of the Kenya Defence Forces in Somalia in October 2011 in reaction to the increase in kidnappings on the Kenyan coast, the threat of terrorism in Kenya increased considerably. Initially the perception was that the threat originated from Somalia and that Somali nationals or Somali-Kenyans consequently committed attacks in Kenya. As arrests were made, Kenya was...

To Spy or Not to Spy? Intelligence and Democracy in South Africa

"As the title of the series of papers suggests, there are two primary issues for discussion. On the one hand, the question 'To spy or not to spy?’ has been posed. This question asks us to consider the nature of the role and function of the South African intelligence community and the role of the secret sector in the security apparatus of the state. On the other hand, the issue of the...

Terrorism in the Maghreb The Transnationalisation of Domestic Terrorism

Published: 2008
"This monograph will attempt to place the threat and implication of the name change announcement of the Salafist Group for Combat and Preaching (GSPC)to al-Qa’eda in the Land of the Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM) in context, with the primary focus on events in 2007. The name change in itself implied that the original domestic group had transnational ambitions, but what influenced this development...

Domestic Terrorism in Africa: Defining, Addressing and Understanding it's Impact on Human Security

"This report contains some of the papers that were presented at the fourth seminar of the ‘Understanding terrorism in Africa’ series. The seminar, held under the theme of ‘Understanding domestic terrorism in Africa’, took place in Accra, Ghana from 5–6 November 2007. Like the previous seminars in the series, participants from different parts of Africa and from other countries outside the...

Understanding Terrorism in Africa: Building Bridges and Overcoming the Gaps

"The sub-theme of the seminar, ‘building bridges and overcoming gaps in the understanding of terrorism in Africa’, was one of the recommendations reached at the first seminar held in Benoni, South Africa, in November 2006. It posits that, in order to prevent and combat terrorism in Africa, we must come up with ways of building bridges across the continent. Hence, the Cairo seminar had the...

Politics and Terrorism An Assessment of the Origin and Threat of Terrorism in Egypt

Published: 2006
"The aim of this paper will be to provide insight into the underlying reasons for acts of terrorism in Egypt. In other words, the focus will be on identifying and discussing the development of terrorism in that country in an attempt to reflect on the circumstances that made that country vulnerable to terrorism. Clearly Egypt is not only more prone than other countries to being the target of...

Political Dissent and Terrorism in Southern Africa

Published: 2004
"This paper aims to contribute towards a better understanding of dissent and its role in democracy. The challenge for governments is to manage dissent in such a way that it remains within levels that are regarded as legitimate and normal for healthy democracies and to prevent it from developing into violence and terrorism. In addition to considering the Tanzanian example, this paper also...

South Africa’s Defence Industry Charting A New Course?

Published: 2003
"The South African defence industry has evolved since its establishment in the 1960s. Once the generator of military equipment to the South African armed forces, today it is focused on the export market and engaging in international alliances to ensure sustainability. The evolution of this change is traced in this paper, while the challenges and prospects for the future of the industry are...

Offsetting the Costs of SA’s Strategic Defence Package

Published: 2003
"Industrial offset programmes are often used in the defence trade worldwide to offset the effect of unusually large purchases by requiring a percentage of the contract value to be invested in some way in the economy of the purchasing country. As part of South Africa’s arms procurement process—the strategic defence package—the government secured industrial participation agreements that amount...

Fear in the City Urban Terrorism in South Africa

"This study begins with the question: ‘What is terrorism?’ This is an important question to ask when looking at urban terrorism in a South African context where it can be difficult to distinguish between terrorist as opposed to criminally motivated bombings and assassinations. At the time of writing no group has claimed responsibility for the bombing campaign in Cape Town. Government...

Address by the Honourable P W Botha delivered at the Sandton Holiday Inn on 31 August 1984

In his address mr P W Botha talked about the emerging South Africa and the role it could play in the normalisation of relations. He mentioned political freedom that was brought about by decolonisation and the hopes that Africa could solve their problems. However the disappointing developments will not deter South Africa from playing a leading role in creating stability and peace in the region.

The development of Africa and the role of outside powers

"If today we focus our attention on our continent and its relations with foreign powers we must ask ourselves several questions - questions which demand our serious attention. Colonial powers launched African independence in the early sixties with great promise. The world had great expectations for the awakening giant. The world foresaw that the resources of the continent together with the...

South West Africa and the United Nations: South African letter addressed to the U. N Secretary-General on 27 January 1976

"This paper contains the full text of a letter, dated 27 January, 1976 addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations' by the Permanent Representative of South Africa to the United Nations, Ambassador R.F. Botha. There can be no doubt that if Member States, and in particular members of the Security Council, were to have a clear grasp of the fundamental realities of South West...