Institute for Security Studies

The ISS was founded in 1991 as the Institute for Defence Policy by the current Executive Director, Dr Jakkie Cilliers, together with Mr PB Mertz. The Institute’s head office is in Pretoria, South Africa. Regional ISS offices are located in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dakar (Senegal) and Nairobi (Kenya). http://www.issafrica.org

Library Articles

Preventing Violent Extremism: South Africa’s Place in the World

The prevention of violent extremism (PVE) has become a priority for the global community. This policy brief examines the global environment in terms of policy and implementation frameworks, and explores South Africa’s position in this prevention context. Recommendations are made as to how South Africa should take PVE forward, based on the risks in evidence at the moment.

Is South Africa a Norm Entrepreneur in Africa?

Published: 2016
This policy brief aimed to look at South Africa’s commitment to democracy and human rights in Africa, and to consider the drivers behind the often contradictory foreign-policy positions taken by the government. It questions whether South Africa has been a successful norm entrepreneur in Africa. The paper also reflects on the crisis of expectations that South Africa finds itself in, having to...

Unlocking Africa’s Potential The Relationship between Effective Governance and Poverty

Extreme Poverty is defined by the World Bank as a ‘condition of life so characterized by malnutrition, illiteracy and disease as to be beneath any reasonable definition of human decency’. This paper addresses this issue and uses US$1.90 per person per day as the level of income necessary to maintain this minimum level of human decency.This paper compares the effects of three interventions on...

African Urban Futures

This paper frames the future of Africa’s urban transition and looks at continental and regional long-term futures, the drivers of urbanization and the relationship between urbanization and economic development. The continent’s current and emerging megacities are identified and likely population numbers are forecasted for Cairo, Lagos, Kinshasa, Johannesburg, Luanda and Dar es Salaam over the...

Sustainable Peace Driving the African Peace and Security Architecture through ECOWAS

This paper focuses on the best practices of and lessons learned from ECOWAS in its implementation of the APSA and draws on academic and policy literature, as well as ECOWAS reports and frameworks. The paper focuses particularly on ECOWAS’ attempts to address the root causes of conflicts rather than simply keeping the peace. The AU and the United Nations (UN) have recognized the importance of...

At the Edge Trends and Routes of North African Clandestine Migrants

Published: 2016
Over 16 000 Algerians, Tunisians and Moroccans were caught in 2015 while attempting to migrate to Europe covertly. Though North Africans are a relatively small portion of the masses of clandestine migrants, they are a critical group to understand. They are the innovators and early adopters of new methods and routes for migrant smuggling. Their pioneering in the 1990s and 2000s of the cross...

The Khartoum Process A Sustainable Response to Human Smuggling and Trafficking?

Published: 2016
With the "migration crisis", in 2012 - 2015, citizens from the Horn of Africa have been arriving irregularly in Europe in unprecedented numbers, whilst featuring disproportionately amongst the fatalities. This has prompted the launch of the Khartoum Process, a partnership between the 28 member states of the European Union (EU) and East and North African states, to respond to human...

The Niger-Libya Corridor Smugglers’ Perspectives

The particular focus of this study is on the smugglers facilitating the unprecedented flow of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa to Libya. There is a specific focus on the smuggling corridor that links northern Niger to southern Libya. This smuggling route, through which hundreds of thousands have passed since the onset of what has come to be called the "migrant crisis" in Europe, is one...

Envisioning a Healthy Future Africa’s Shifting Burden of Disease

The highest prevalence of communicable diseases in the world occurs in Africa. In 2015, more than three times as many people died from AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. More than ten times as many people died from malaria as in the rest of the world combined. Non-communicable diseases are also increasing on the continent. Africa’s current development trajectory will be investigated in this paper. It...

The Future of Democracy in Africa

Democracy in much of Africa is currently constrained from delivering on its development potential for three reasons. Firstly, governance capacity is lacking. Secondly, the quality of electoral democracy is thin. Finally, neo patrimonialism undermines electoral democracy in Africa. A forecast to 2070 quantifies the contribution that different levels of democracy would have on Africa’s economic and...

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