Annette Leijenaar joined the ISS as Conflict Management and Peacebuilding Division Head in May 2012. From 2000-2012 she served with the UN at HQ (DPKO: Global Head of Peacekeeping Training, and at UNDSS: Chief of Desk for the Middle East, Asia and Pacific.) She served in the field in Botswana, Somalia, Liberia and Afghanistan. Before joining the UN she served in the SADF/SANDF from 1974 onwards, the last assignment being South Africa`s Military Attaché in the UK. She attended the Joint Staff Course (JSC) in 1999 after returning from the UK. She holds a B Mil (Military Science), Hons B (B&A) and MBA from the University of Stellenbosch.